Rassegna Stampa Scientifica Novembre 2021




Age related interactions on key theoretical determinants of smoking cessation: Findings from the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Surveys (2016-2020)

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntab230.

Published: 10 November 2021

Michael Le Grande, Ron Borland, Hua-Hie Yong, Ann McNeill, Geoffrey Fong, K Michael Cummings





Within-person longitudinal associations between electronic nicotine delivery systems use and smoking cessation efforts among U.S. continuing adult cigarette smokers


Addiction-Related Outcomes of Nicotine and Alcohol Co-use: New Insights Following the Rise in Vaping


What helps and what hinders the creation of a smoke-free home: A qualitative study of fathers in Scotland



Note: Fathers and smoke-free homes in Scotland study Open Access.


"Users of sweet-flavored ENDS [electronic nicotine delivery systems] were significantly younger than those who used tobacco- or menthol flavors. Black dual users were significantly more likely than other racial groups to use menthol and less likely to use sweet flavors. Dual users who preferred sweet flavors smoked cigarettes on fewer days than those who preferred tobacco and menthol flavors, were less cigarette dependent, more strongly endorsed boredom reduction expectancies and motives related to taste and sensory experience and were more likely to stop smoking by 12 months. "


Preferred flavors and tobacco use patterns in adult dual users of cigarettes and ENDS

Addict Behav. 2021 Oct 30;107168. Online ahead of print.

Eva C Rest, Kristin N Brikmanis, Robin J Mermelstein





Visual attention to blu's parody warnings and the FDA's warning on e-cigarette advertisements



"Compared to infrequent exclusive e-cigarette users, infrequent concurrent users (AOR = 4.72, 95%CI = 1.31-17.00), intermediate concurrent users (AOR = 5.10, 95%CI = 1.37-18.97), and frequent concurrent users (AOR = 7.44, 95%CI = 2.06-26.84) were at increased odds of reporting COVID-19 symptoms. Compared to exclusive e-cigarette users, concurrent e-cigarette and cannabis users were 1.85 times more likely (95%CI = 1.15-2.98) to report a COVID-19 diagnosis… Conclusions: Concurrent use of e-cigarettes and cannabis may be an underlying risk factor of COVID-19 symptomatology and diagnosis, with more pronounced odds found among intermediate and frequent users."


Concurrent use of e-cigarettes and cannabis and associated COVID-19 symptoms, testing, and diagnosis among student e-cigarette users at four U.S. Universities

Addict Behav. 2021 Nov 1;107170. Online ahead of print.

Ashley L Merianos, Alex M Russell, E Melinda Mahabee-Gittens, Adam E Barry, Meng Yang, Hsien-Chang Lin



Note: Open Access.


"This meta-ethnography provides an in-depth insight into social norms around e-cigarette use and beliefs that e-cigarettes could be a safer alternative to traditional cigarettes. As young adults increasingly engage with e-cigarettes, there is a need for informed policy decisions regarding appropriate use. Engagement with e-cigarettes is often reflected within social media, so this medium could be a key platform for creating tailored interventions which inform young adults about the appropriate use of these products."


"That's the whole thing about vaping, it's custom tasty goodness": a meta-ethnography of young adults' perceptions and experiences of e-cigarette use

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2021 Nov 12;16(1):85.

Ananth Ranjit, Grace McCutchan, Katherine Brain, Ria Poole




Note: Open Access.


"The study cohort consisted of 25,958 unique Covid-19 positive inpatients. There was a total of 2,995 current smokers, 12,169 former smokers, and 8,392 non-smokers. Death was experienced by 13.5% (n = 3503) of the cohort within 30 days. Former smokers (OR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.27) (HR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23) had higher risk of 30-day mortality compared with non-smokers. Former smokers had a higher risk of death compared to current smokers (HR 1.16 95% CI 1.02-1.33)."


Smoking status related to Covid-19 mortality and disease severity in a veteran population

Respir Med. 2021 Oct 30;190:106668. Online ahead of print.

Laura A Wilkinson, Kari A Mergenhagen, Michael T Carter, Hubert Chua, Collin Clark, Bethany A Wattengel, John A Sellick, Ali A El-Solh




Note: Open Access.


"Cigarette smokers may endured additional impacts of COVID-19, such as increased COVID-19 health burdens, stressors related to risk of exposure, social stigma and isolation, financial burdens, and increased toxicant exposure from increased smoking frequency."


Impacts of COVID-19 on cigarette use, smoking behaviors, and tobacco purchasing behaviors

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 Oct 28;229(Pt B):109144. Online ahead of print.

Sarah F Maloney, Madison Combs, Rebecca Lester Scholtes, Megan Underwood, Barbara Kilgalen, Eric K Soule, Alison B Breland



Note: Open Access.


"In this preliminary study, we have examined the effects of 20 e-liquids (10 different flavored nicotine-free and 10 nicotine-rich e-liquids) used in e-cigarettes on the metabolic activity, membrane integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential of RPE [retinal pigment epithelial] cells. Our results showed that of the flavors studied over the concentration range: 0.5, 1, and 2% v/v for a duration of 48 h, cinnamon was the most toxic and menthol was the second most toxic, while other flavors showed lesser or no cytotoxicity. The presence of nicotine augmented cytotoxicity for cinnamon, menthol, strawberry, vanilla, and banana while for other flavors there was no synergism."


Effects of E-Cigarette Refill Liquid Flavorings with and without Nicotine on Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: A Preliminary Study

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Nov 6;18(21):11655.

Shilpi Goenka, Sanford R Simon





Passive Vaping from Sub-Ohm Electronic Cigarette Devices


Vaping and COVID-19: Insights for Public Health and Clinical Care from Twitter


Effects of E-Cigarette Flavoring Chemicals on Human Macrophages and Bronchial Epithelial Cells


Improving the Analysis of E-Cigarette Emissions: Detecting Human "Dry Puff" Conditions in a Laboratory as Validated by a Panel of Experienced Vapers



Note: Open Access.


"We identified three different categories of policy interference-related posts: (1) providing updates on [electronic nicotine delivery systems-] ENDS-related policy at the federal, state, and local levels; (2) sharing opinions about ENDS-related policies; (3) posts related to scientific information related to vaping; and (4) calls to action to mobilize against tobacco/ENDS policies. Our findings indicate that pro-tobacco social media communities on Facebook, driven by strategic activities of trade associations and their members, may act as focal points for anti-policy information dissemination, grass-roots mobilization, and industry coordination that needs further research."


Digital Surveillance to Identify California Alternative and Emerging Tobacco Industry Policy Influence and Mobilization on Facebook

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Oct 23;18(21):11150.

Qing Xu, Joshua Yang, Michael R Haupt, Mingxiang Cai, Matthew C Nali, Tim K Mackey





Longitudinal Impact of Depressive Symptoms and Peer Tobacco Use on the Number of Tobacco Products Used by Young Adults


Associations between Cognitive and Affective Responses to Tobacco Advertisements and Tobacco Use Incidence: A Four-Year Prospective Study among Adolescent Boys


Associations between Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Physical Activity, and Respiratory Health in Children


Impact of Little Cigars and Cigarillos Packaging Features on Product Preference




Note: Open Access.


"Smoking cessation apps can be used in combination with a face-to-face intervention (FFSC-Apps), or alone as general apps (GSC-Apps). The aims of this review were (1) to examine the effects of FFSC-Apps and GSC-Apps on abstinence, tobacco use, and relapse rates; and (2) to describe their features… Of the total 6016 studies screened, 24 were included, of which nine used GSC-Apps and 15 FFSC-Apps. Eight studies reported significant differences between conditions in smoking cessation outcomes, with three of them being in favor of the use of apps, and two between different point-assessments."


Smoking Cessation Apps: A Systematic Review of Format, Outcomes, and Features

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Nov 6;18(21):11664.

María Barroso-Hurtado, Daniel Suárez-Castro, Carmela Martínez-Vispo, Elisardo Becoña, Ana López-Durán





Implementation of a WeChat-Based Smoking Cessation Program for Chinese Smokers



Note: Open Access.


"Predictors of whether someone would draw another pregnant women's attention to the fact that smoking is harmful were: intellectual work (OR 1.136; p-value 0.020) and currently being a student (OR 1.363; p-value 0.004), involvement of the child's father (OR 1.377; p-value < 0.001), contact with social campaigns (OR 1.150; p-value 0.005) and knowledge about the consequences of smoking, as well as talking to the midwife about the harmfulness of cigarettes during pregnancy (OR 1.655; p-value < 0.001). Interpersonal relationships leave scope for public health interventions. It is worth enhancing criticism against smoking by specialists through information and education campaigns."


Willingness to Oppose Smoking among Pregnant Women

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Nov 5;18(21):11636.

Dominik Olejniczak, Krzysztof Klimiuk, Urszula Religioni, Anna Staniszewska, Mariusz Panczyk, Agnieszka Nowacka, Paulina Mularczyk-Tomczewska, Edyta Krzych-Fałta, Anna Korcala-Wichary, Łukasz Balwicki





Barriers and Facilitators to Staying Smoke-Free after Having a Baby, a Qualitative Study: Women's Views on Support Needed to Prevent Returning to Smoking Postpartum


Factors Associated with Smoke-Free Pregnancy among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Women and Their Experience of Quitting Smoking in Pregnancy: A Mixed Method Cross-Sectional Study



Note: Open Access.


"Daily use of the patch or both the patch and gum was associated with a lower risk of daily smoking. Low levels of nicotine gum use alone may not be an effective cessation strategy."


Daily use of nicotine replacement medications is related to daily smoking status: An ecological momentary assessment study

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 Oct 29;229(Pt A):109161. Online ahead of print.

Emily T Hébert, Tanushri Bhushan, Chaelin K Ra, Summer Frank-Pearce, Adam C Alexander, Ashley B Cole, Darla E Kendzor, Michael S Businelle









Rassegna Stampa Scientifica Aprile 2022





Prohibition no, abolition yes! Rethinking how we talk about ending the cigarette epidemic

Tobacco Control Online issue publication March 03, 2022.

Ruth E Malone, Robert N Proctor




Note: Open Access.


"Recently advanced ethical arguments favouring the interests of people who currently smoke over those of young never-smokers fail to fully convince. Several of these arguments are constrained by a resource prioritisation framework that is neither appropriate to nor adequate for the analytical task, since ENDS [electronic nicotine delivery systems] are not a scarce resource for which we have to find the ethically best recipient. Arguments that assume ENDS are less harmful than combustible cigarettes, or the least restrictive alternative, do not adequately consider young never-smokers’ perspectives; ENDS will be more rather than less harmful and restrictive than no nicotine use at all for this group. Both the interests of those who smoke in reducing the risks they face and the interests of young people in avoiding nicotine dependence and protecting their health are weighty."


Ethics and ENDS

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 25 March 2022.

Elizabeth Fenton, Lindsay Robertson, Janet Hoek




Note: Open Access.


"The data on e-cigarettes as an effective and safe harm reduction strategy for users of traditional combustible cigarettes, are complicated and often contradictory. Although there has been some recent evidence that supports the use of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, there is also evidence that ENDS [electronic nicotine delivery systems] use may be associated with other worrisome behaviors. Use of e-cigarettes may persist after smoking cessation, cigarette use relapse may be a risk, dual use is common, and the full extent of risks is still largely unknown, especially with the frequent arrival of novel devices to the marketplace and vast variations in vape liquid, ingredients, and nicotine concentration… The risks posed by e-cigarettes are many, particularly to adolescents, who have skyrocketing rates of nicotine addiction, vulnerability to lung injury, potential impairment of cognitive function, and increased risk of traditional combustible cigarette use."


E-Cigarettes-a review of the evidence-harm versus harm reduction

Tob Use Insights. 2022 Mar 29;15:1179173X221087524. eCollection 2022.

Susan Feeney, Victoria Rossetti, Jill Terrien




Note: Open Access.


"Seven papers assessed perinatal outcomes following ENDS [electronic nicotine delivery systems] use during pregnancy. There was evidence that ENDS use was associated with increased risk for some adverse perinatal outcomes (e.g., small for gestational age). However, the repeated use of data sets, insufficient data (e.g., timing of ENDS use, type of ENDS products used), and limited samples size, contributed to mixed findings on the degree to which ENDS use (alone or in combination with combustible cigarettes (CC)) impacts the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes relative to CC smoking alone."


Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) Use and Pregnancy II: Perinatal Outcomes Following ENDS Use During Pregnancy

Curr Addict Rep. 2021 Sep;8(3):366-379. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Elise E DeVito, Tessa Fagle, Alicia M Allen, Raina D Pang, Nicole Petersen, Philip H Smith, Andrea H Weinberger



"The main findings of this study are that: (1) Most physicians had HTP [heated tobacco product] awareness and agreed that there is a lack of evidence regarding their long-term safety. (2) Only half of the physicians discouraged HTP use in patients. (3) Only a few physicians believed that HTPs are useful as a conventional cigarette substitute. (4) Physicians’ smoking status and cessation behaviors largely affected their attitudes toward patients’ HTP use and concerns… Increasing evidence regarding HTPs’ health effects and educating physicians are critical first steps towards reducing tobacco-related deaths."


Awareness, Attitudes, and Concerns Regarding Heated Tobacco Products among Physicians in Japan

J Epidemiol. 2022 Apr 2. Online ahead of print.

Yuichiro Otsuka, Yoshitaka Kaneita, Osamu Itani, Yuuki Matsumoto, Yutaka Hatori, Satoshi Imamura




Note: Open Access.


"In response to a ban of all added flavors for cigarettes or cigars, nearly half of current smokers would quit smoking, largely by switching to non-smoking products. However, smokers with more chronic use and those who used only menthol cigarettes would be more likely to switch to non-flavored smoking, diminishing the harm reduction potential. The ban may decrease the relatively higher prevalence of menthol cigarette smoking among Blacks compared with other groups."


How Smokers of Menthol Cigarettes and Flavored Cigars Might Respond to FDA’s Proposed Bans

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac078.

Published: 30 March 2022

Yong Yang, Eric N Lindblom, Kenneth D Ward, Ramzi G Salloum



"During spring 2021, during the 30 days before the survey, approximately one in three high school students used any tobacco product, alcohol, or marijuana or engaged in prescription opioid misuse; one in six students used EVPs [electronic vapor products]… These findings are of public health concern because youths’ use of tobacco products in any form is unsafe; EVPs contain nicotine, which is highly addictive, can harm adolescent brain development, and can prime the brain for addiction to other drugs."


Use of Tobacco Products, Alcohol, and Other Substances Among High School Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic — Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey, United States, January–June 2021

MMWR Supplements / April 1, 2022 / 71(3);8–15

Nancy D. Brener, Michele K. Bohm, Christopher M. Jones, Samantha Puvanesarajah, Leah Robin, Nicolas Suarez, Xiaoyi Deng, R. Lee Harding, Davia Moyse




Note: Open Access.


"Consistent with prior findings that MCII [mental contrasting with implementation intentions] works best in vulnerable populations, MCII may be more effective for smoking reduction among high-stress than low-stress individuals… The greater stress experienced by low-SES [socioeconomic status] individuals may have created a vulnerability to smoking that MCII, but not the active control, helped combat against."


Effectiveness of a Motivational Smoking Reduction Strategy Across Socioeconomic Status and Stress Levels

Front Psychol. 2022 Mar 18;13:801028. eCollection 2022.

Elizabeth C Voigt, Elizabeth R Mutter, Gabriele Oettingen 



Note: Open Access.


"A total of 34 articles with 35,193 COVID-19 patients was included. The meta-analysis confirmed the association between current smoking (OR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.01-1.58) and former smoking (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.53-2.03) with COVID-19 mortality. We also found that the risk for COVID-19 death in current smokers does not vary by age, but significantly drops by age in former smokers… Conclusions: Current and former smokers are at higher risk of dying from COVID-19. Tobacco control should be strengthened to encourage current smokers to quit and prevent the initiation of smoking."


Active smokers are at higher risk of COVID-19 death: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac085.

Published: 01 April 2022

Roengrudee Patanavanich, Tanatorn Siripoon, Salin Amponnavarat, Stanton A Glantz





Youth vaping during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic period: adjusted annual changes in vaping between the pre-COVID and initial COVID-lockdown waves of the COMPASS study


Remote versus In-Person Learning During COVID-19: Comparison of E-Cigarette Susceptibility and Ever Use among a diverse cohort of 6 th Grade Students in Texas


Changes in Smoking Status and Behaviours After the First Ten Months of Covid-19 Pandemic in Indonesia


Exposure to negative news stories about vaping, and harm perceptions of vaping, among youth in England, Canada, and the US before and after the outbreak of E-cigarette or Vaping-Associated Lung Injury (EVALI)



Note: COMPASS, Remote versus In-Person Learning and EVALI papers Open Access.


"In this study, we found that serum anti-RBD [receptor-binding domain] IgG levels were negatively correlated with FTND [Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence] after BNT162b2 vaccination, while it showed no clear correlation with serum cotinine levels. These results suggest that repeated smoking behavior due to strong cigarette dependence may lead to low antibody titers after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination, and that the factors affecting low antibody titers after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in cigarettes may not be limited to nicotine."


Antibody response of smokers to the COVID-19 vaccination: Evaluation based on cigarette dependence

Drug Discov Ther. 2022 Apr 4. Online ahead of print.

Yukihiro Mori, Mamoru Tanaka, Hana Kozai, Kiyoshi Hotta, Yuka Aoyama, Yukihiro Shigeno, Makoto Aoike, Hatsumi Kawamura, Masato Tsurudome, Morihiro Ito




Note: Open Access.


"Nicotine replacement therapy and nicotine vaping products are two commonly used smoking cessation aids. This study demonstrates that misperceptions of the harms of nicotine products relative to cigarettes influence their use for smoking cessation. Believing that nicotine vaping products are much less harmful than cigarette smoking may lead some smokers to prefer these products over nicotine replacement therapy to aid smoking cessation."


Do smokers’ perceptions of the harmfulness of nicotine replacement therapy and nicotine vaping products as compared to cigarettes influence their use as an aid for smoking cessation? Findings from the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Surveys

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac087.

Published: 03 April 2022

Hua-Hie Yong, Shannon Gravely, Ron Borland, Coral Gartner, K Michael Cummings, Katherine East, Scott Tagliaferri, Tara Elton-Marshall, Andrew Hyland, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Geoffrey T Fong





Tobacco use and respiratory symptoms among adults: Findings from the Longitudinal Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study 2014-16


Appropriate policy implications of the fact that high content and flavored e-cigarettes have higher abuse liability



Note: Open Access.


"Eight studies were included, seven were at high risk of bias. There was inconclusive evidence of the effect of MMCs [mass media campaigns] on quit attempts and intentions to quit among people with mental illness. Increasing advertisement exposure did not increase quit attempts or intentions to quit among those with mental illness, however, increased exposure to an advertisement that addressed smoking and mental health did. None of the studies assessed cost-effectiveness."


The effect of tobacco control mass media campaigns on smoking-related behaviour among people with mental illness: a systematic literature review

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac079.

Published: 31 March 2022

Parvati R Perman-Howe, Ann McNeill, Leonie S Brose, Bernadett E Tildy, Tessa E Langley, Debbie Robson



Note: Open Access.




E-cigarette provision to promote switching in cigarette smokers with serious mental illness—a randomized trial




Failed Attempts to Quit Combustible Cigarettes and e-Cigarettes Among US Adolescents

JAMA. 2022;327(12):1179-1181.

March 22/29, 2022

Richard Miech, Adam M. Leventhal, Patrick M. O’Malley, Lloyd D. Johnston, Jessica L. Barrington-Trimis,



Related PR:


E-cigarettes contribute to unsuccessful nicotine quit attempts by adolescents




"A multi-institutional retrospective study was performed by querying the electronic health records at nine children's hospitals… 15 children sustained traumatic injuries due to e-cigarette explosion. The median age was 17 y (range 13-18). The median injury severity score was 2 (range 1-5). Three patients reported that their injury coincided with their first vaping experience… The injuries sustained were: facial burns (6), loss of multiple teeth (5), thigh and groin burns (5), hand burns (4), ocular burns (4), a radial nerve injury, a facial laceration, and a mandible fracture. Six children required operative intervention, one of whom required multiple operations for a severe hand injury. Conclusions: In addition to vaping-associated lung injury, vaping-associated traumatic injuries are an emerging and worrisome injury pattern sustained by adolescents in the United States."


Adolescent Vaping-Associated Trauma in the Western United States

J Surg Res. 2022 Apr 5;276:251-255. Online ahead of print.

Katie W Russell, Micah G Katz, Ryan C Phillips, Lorraine I Kelley-Quon, Shannon N Acker, Niti Shahi, Justin H Lee, Elizabeth A Fialkowski, Deepthi Nacharaju, Caitlin A Smith, Aaron R Jensen, Claudia M Mueller, Benjamin E Padilla, Romeo C Ignacio, Shadassa Ourshalimian, Kasper S Wang, Daniel J Ostlie, Stephen J Fenton, Zachary J Kastenberg, Western Pediatric Surgery Research Consortium



"The study sample consisted of 12,570 (weighted N = 23,993,149) individuals aged 12 to 17 years old. Unadjusted past 30-day exposure to newspaper, radio, billboard, and social media advertising all correlated with a reduced harm perception, but only the associations for newspaper and social media were statistically significant (p<0.05)… Conclusion: E-cigarette advertising influences adolescent perceptions of harm in e-cigarette use, particularly for social media and newspaper advertisements. This association weakens when adjusted for covariates such as environmental support and exposure to anti-tobacco marketing."


The association of adolescent e-cigarette harm perception to advertising exposure and marketing type

Arch Public Health. 2022 Apr 8;80(1):114.

Man Hung, Andrew Spencer, Clarissa Goh, Eric S Hon, Val Joseph Cheever, Frank W Licari, Ryan Moffat, Ben Raymond, Martin S Lipsky




Note: Open Access.


"Most vapers in the UK and the US want to stop vaping (62% vs 61%; p=.9493), but US respondents plan to quit significantly sooner (OR 0.47, p=.0004). Attitudes differed as well. Over half (56%) of UK respondents reported their government approved e-cigarette use, and 24% felt health care providers had positive views on e-cigarettes versus 29% and 13% from the US, respectively (p=.0004 for both). Conclusions: Plans for quitting and perceptions regarding e-cigarettes differ markedly between demographically similar groups of vapers in the two countries."


Vaping, perceptions of vaping, and plans to quit among e-cigarette users in the United States and the United Kingdom

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac092.

Published: 4 April 2022

Keith Feldman, Ligia Menezes do Amaral, Telmo Mota Ronzani, Kimber P Richter, Nathalia Munck Machado



"Adolescents rated the chemical, lung, and COVID-19 harms warning messages higher on PME [perceived message effectiveness] than nicotine addiction and control (all p<.05), while nicotine addiction was rated higher than control (p<.05). The chemical, lung, and COVID-19 harms warning themes also elicited greater negative affect than nicotine addiction and control (all p<.05). For all other secondary outcomes, the COVID-19 harms warning message theme was rated higher than nicotine addiction and control (all p<.05)… To discourage vaping, the FDA [Food & Drug Administration]  and others should communicate to youth about the health effects of vaping beyond nicotine addiction."


Identifying promising themes for adolescent vaping warnings: A national experiment

Nicotine Tob Res. 2022 Apr 9;ntac093. Online ahead of print.

Jacob A Rohde, Seth M Noar, Jennifer Mendel Sheldon, Marissa G Hall, Talia Kieu, Noel T Brewer



"Prevalence of nicotine misperceptions was significantly higher-than-average among those who recognized all ten smoking-caused diseases (PR: 1.34), believed additive-free cigarettes were more harmful than regular cigarettes (PR: 1.71), or did not report subjective norms supporting noncombustible use (PR: 1.05). Conclusion: High perceived threat of tobacco may be overgeneralized to nicotine… Messaging should attempt to correct the misperception that nicotine causes cancer."


Beliefs and Characteristics Associated With Believing Nicotine Causes Cancer: A Descriptive Analysis to Inform Corrective Message Content and Priority Audiences

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac060.

Published: 06 April 2022

Caitlin Weiger, Meghan Bridgid Moran, Ryan David Kennedy, Rupali Limaye, Joanna Cohen



"In this cohort study of 2.4 million adults, adjusting for socio-demographics and medical comorbidities, current cigarette smoking was associated with a lower risk of both COVID-19 infection and severe COVID-19 illness compared to never-smoking. A history of smoking was associated with a slightly lower risk of COVID-19 infection and a modestly higher risk of severe COVID-19 illness compared to never-smoking. The lower observed COVID-19 risk for current versus never-smoking deserves further investigation."


Cigarette Smoking and Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Disease Severity Among Adults in an Integrated Health Care System in California

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac090.

Published: 03 April 2022

Kelly C Young-Wolff, Natalie Slama, Stacey E Alexeeff, Lori C Sakoda, Renee Fogelberg, Laura C Myers, Cynthia I Campbell, Alyce S Adams, Judith J Prochaska



"Health officials [in Ethiopia, India, Uganda] typically link its core norm of a fundamental conflict between public health and industry interests to the governance norm of protecting public health policies from industry interference. While officials in sectors beyond health broadly endorsed this core norm, they exhibited more limited awareness of [Framework Convention on Tobacco Control] Article 5.3 and its model of governance. The results examine how rules to implement Article 5.3 have been codified, but identify the absence of policy tools necessary to operationalise rules and norms… Conclusion: Conceptualising Article 5.3 as a policy instrument helps to explain how its rules and policy tools interact with each other and with broader governance processes."


Norms, rules and policy tools: understanding Article 5.3 as an instrument of tobacco control governance

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 07 April 2022.

Rob Ralston, Selamawit Hirpa, Shalini Bassi, Denis Male, Praveen Kumar, Rachel Ann Barry, Jeff Collin





Institutional tensions, corporate social responsibility and district-level governance of tobacco industry interference: analysing challenges in local implementation of Article 5.3 measures in Karnataka, India


’A contradiction between our state and the tobacco company’: conflicts of interest and institutional constraints as barriers to implementing Article 5.3 in Bangladesh



Note: Open Access.


"Most state-level policies (71.4%) were categorised in the second lowest comprehensiveness category; local policies most commonly fell within the lowest (48.9%) or highest (26.0%) comprehensiveness categories. Across jurisdictions, adult-only retailers were most frequently exempted from the FTP [flavoured tobacco product] sales restrictions (state: n=1, 14.3%; local: n=184, 56.3%); and most jurisdictions included electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as a banned product (state: n=6, 87.5%; local: n=327, 100%). While just over half of state (n=4, 57.1%) and local (n=169, 51.7%) sales restrictions included menthol e-cigarettes, most excluded menthol cigarettes and/or menthol smokeless tobacco."


Classifying the comprehensiveness of flavoured tobacco sales restrictions: development and application of a tool to examine US state and local tobacco policies

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 17 December 2021.

Emily Donovan, Shanell Folger, Maham Akbar, Barbara Schillo





Menthol versus non-menthol flavouring and switching to e-cigarettes in black and Latinx adult menthol combustible cigarette smokers: secondary analyses from a randomised clinical trial



"Twenty RCTs [randomized controlled trials] involving 16,702 smokers were included. The risk of bias results showed that 10 RCTs were rated as high, three were low, and seven were unclear. A total of 21 pairs were compared based on seven interventions. The NMA [network meta-analysis] showed that, compared to the placebo (PLA), the other six interventions had significant efficacy in smoking cessation, where VAR [varenicline] + BUP [bupropion] showed the best effect of all treatments (odds ratio (OR) = 6.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) [3.47, 10.66]). Moreover, VAR + BUP was superior to VAR + NRT [nicotine replacement therapy] (OR = 1.66, 95% CI [1.07, 2.59]) and the three monotherapies (VAR, BUP, and NRT). In the monotherapies, the results of pairwise comparisons of VAR, BUP, and NRT did not show significant differences… Conclusions: The efficacy of VAR, BUP, and NRT alone increased the odds of smoking abstinence better than the placebo, combined interventions were superior to monotherapy, and VAR combined with other interventions had a better smoking cessation effect."


The effect of Varenicline and Bupropion on smoking cessation: A network meta-analysis of 20 randomized controlled trials

Addict Behav. 2022 Apr 5;131:107329. Online ahead of print.

Kangle Guo, Shizhong Wang, Xue Shang, Fenfen E, Liangying Hou, Jieyun Li, Yanfei Li, Kehu Yang, Xiuxia Li 



"Relative to 1 mg, 2 mg/day of Varenicline attenuated abstinence-induced increases in craving (TQSU [Tiffany Questionnaire for Smoking Urges] Factor 1 d=-0.47, p = .006; TQSU Factor 2 d=-0.42, p = .008) and withdrawal (MNWS [Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale] d=-0.35, p = .03) in both groups. Conclusion: Our preliminary findings suggest that subacute Varenicline treatment reduces abstinence-induced craving and withdrawal in participants with and without SCZ [schizophrenia]."


Dose-dependent effects of Varenicline on tobacco craving and withdrawal in tobacco smokers with and without schizophrenia

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2022 Mar 28;234:109412. Online ahead of print.

Samantha Johnstone, Maryam Sorkhou, Rachel A Rabin, Tony P George



"COPD [Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease] is among the most common chronic medical conditions in the United States, affecting over 26 million Americans. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III found that a typical 65-year-old patient with mild or moderate COPD has a life expectancy of over 10 years. This finding suggests a therapeutic window wherein robust screening tools and targeted clinical interventions would yield clinical benefits for patients with COPD. Furthermore, possibly an even greater population suffer from a spectrum of tobacco-related respiratory illness. Studies have suggested that use of tobacco, even in the absence of airflow obstruction, generates risk of impaired respiratory health. However, relatively few objective parameters exist in clinical practice for monitoring disease status and progression in this population. Identification of measurable and reversible risk factors that could intercept disease progression in this group would have significant impact on population health."


Intercepting Smoking-Related Respiratory Disease: Finding Novel Markers Beyond the Lung

Chest. 2022 Apr;161(4):867-868.

Joseph I Bailey, Ravi Kalhan




Note: Open Access.


Related Chest study:


Longitudinal Association Between Muscle Loss and Mortality in Ever Smokers



"Among the 73,205 newborns enrolled, multivariable analysis revealed that the aOR (95% CI) of LRTI [lower respiratory tract infection] and GI [gastroenteritis] was 1.20 (1.07-1.33) and 1.18 (1.04-1.35), respectively, for the "Current smoker with/without SHS" [secondhand smoke] group compared with the "Never smoked without SHS" group. "Quit smoking without SHS" was not associated with the risk of LRTI. SHS was associated with an increased risk of OM [otitis media], URTI [upper respiratory tract infection], LRTI, and GI, especially with LRTI and GI."


Tobacco Exposure During Pregnancy and Infections in Infants up to 1 Year of Age: The Japan Environment and Children's Study

J Epidemiol. 2022 Apr 9. Online ahead of print.

Koichi Hashimoto, Hajime Maeda, Hajime Iwasa, Hyo Kyozuka, Ryo Maeda, Yohei Kume, Takashi Ono, Mina Chishiki, Akiko Sato, Yuka Ogata, Tsuyoshi Murata, Keiya Fujimori, Kosei Shinoki, Hidekazu Nishigori, Seiji Yasumura, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS) Group




Note: Open Access.


"A series of tobacco control programs: advocacy, health education, brief interventions for smoking cessation, peer counselor training, media campaigns, and policy regulations were implemented… Majority of smokers (76.6%) reduced their consumption, and 5.6% of them quit smoking. Among smokers, we found that attitude toward smoking cessation, subjective norm, and perceived control for quitting were related to the intention to stop smoking."


A Comprehensive Tobacco Control Policy Program in a Mining Industry in Indonesia: Did It Work?

Front Public Health. 2022 Mar 24;10:853862. eCollection 2022.

Yayi S Prabandari, Bagas S Bintoro, Purwanta Purwanta



Note: Open Access.


"Smokers presented high levels of hostility and those who smoke more than 15 cigarettes per day indicated higher levels of anxiety than those who smoke less or not at all. Lower levels of empathy appeared in smokers, regardless of occupation. Smokers presented lower levels of annoyance when they are in a place where smoking is prohibited and someone else smokes. Participants with higher somatization, hostility, and lower empathy are less bothered when they are in a place where smoking is prohibited and someone else smokes."


Assessment of Greek Smokers' Psychological Characteristics and Empathy While Smoking in Enclosed Public Spaces and Near Nonsmokers

Cureus. 2022 Mar 7;14(3):e22910. eCollection 2022 Mar.

Giorgos Iatrou, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis, Evangelia Kotrotsiou, Mary Gouva




Note: Open Access upon registration.


 The Tobacco Wars’ Lessons for the Vaccination Wars

NEJM April 13, 2022

Robert Bazell, Howard Koh, and Barry R. Bloom



Note: Open Access.


"Adolescents rated the chemical, lung, and COVID-19 harms warning messages higher on PME [perceived message effectiveness] than nicotine addiction and control (all p<.05), while nicotine addiction was rated higher than control (p<.05). The chemical, lung, and COVID-19 harms warning themes also elicited greater negative affect than nicotine addiction and control (all p<.05). For all other secondary outcomes, the COVID-19 harms warning message theme was rated higher than nicotine addiction and control (all p<.05)."


Identifying promising themes for adolescent vaping warnings: A national experiment

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac093.

Published: 09 April 2022

Jacob A Rohde, Seth M Noar, Jennifer Mendel Sheldon, Marissa G Hall, Talia Kieu, Noel T Brewer



"There is no evidence in the full sample [of 1034 UK children aged 13–17 years] to suggest that children’s susceptibility to smoking is increased by exposure to higher visibility e-cigarette retail displays, or to a higher proportion of e-cigarette images. However, for regular store visitors or those paying more attention, viewing a higher proportion of e-cigarette images increased susceptibility to smoking. In addition, viewing higher visibility e-cigarette images reduced perceived harm of smoking."


Impact of e-cigarette retail displays on attitudes to smoking and vaping in children: an online experimental study

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 13 April 2022.

Anna K M Blackwell, Mark A Pilling, Katie De-Loyde, Richard W Morris, Laura A Brocklebank, Theresa M Marteau, Marcus R Munafò





Public health impact of a US ban on menthol in cigarettes and cigars: a simulation study



Note: Open Access.


"Counties with greater implementation of flavoured tobacco product restrictions were associated with a decrease in the level of cigarette use among users (Coefficient −1.56; 95% CI −2.54 to −0.58). A significant interaction (p=0.03) revealed the largest reductions among 14 and 18 year olds. Increasing flavoured tobacco product restrictions were also associated with reductions in the likelihood of e-cigarette use (Coefficient −0.87; 95% CI −1.68 to −0.06). Increasing tobacco 21 restrictions were associated with decreases in cigarette use only among 18 year olds, while there was no evidence of associations between smoke-free laws with use of either tobacco product."


Flavoured tobacco product restrictions in Massachusetts associated with reductions in adolescent cigarette and e-cigarette use

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 27 January 2021.

Summer Sherburne Hawkins, Claudia Kruzik, Michael O'Brien, Rebekah Levine Coley





Nicotine pouch product awareness, interest and ever use among US adults who smoke, 2021



"Our findings reveal that time spent socializing in the virtual sphere is significantly associated with a greater likelihood of vaping nicotine, marijuana, and flavor. In addition, our findings reveal that while the relationship between virtual socializing and vaping is attenuated by unstructured socializing (i.e., unsupervised socializing or "hanging out") in person to some degree, time spent socializing virtually is still a significant predictor of adolescent vaping activity even after taking time spent socializing in person into account."


The role of virtual socializing and unstructured socializing in adolescent vaping

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2022 Apr 8;235:109446. Online ahead of print.

Cashen M Boccio, Wanda E Leal, Dylan B Jackson



"We conducted a secondary analysis 65,565 enrolments in a large smoking cessation program in Ontario, Canada… From the start of the pandemic in March, 2020, total weeks of NRT [nicotine replacement therapy] provided rose significantly and then declined, while the amount of counseling fell. Associations between NRT use and participant characteristics changed significantly after the pandemic onset. Individual models showed that people with lower income, living in areas of higher marginalization, unable to work, and reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms all received NRT for a longer time during the pandemic period."


Effects of COVID-19-related disruptions on service use in a large smoking-cessation program

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac103.

Published: 14 April 2022

Scott Veldhuizen, Newsha Mahinpey, Laurie Zawertailo, Nadia Minian, Osnat Melamed, Peter Selby





The Consequences of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Smoking Behaviour: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing


Tobacco-free nicotine pouch use in Great Britain: a representative population survey 2020–2021



Note: Open Access.


"In this cross-sectional survey of 2058 respondents, physicians who were asked about e-cigarettes by their patients, endorsed a harm-reduction perspective, or had ever smoked were more likely to recommend e-cigarettes to patients. In hypothetical clinical scenarios, physicians were more likely to recommend e-cigarettes for an older heavy smoker with prior unsuccessful quit attempts and use of pharmacotherapy for a younger light smoker with no prior cessation treatments."


Communication Between US Physicians and Patients Regarding Electronic Cigarette Use

JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(4):e226692.

April 15, 2022

Cristine D. Delnevo, Michelle Jeong, Arjun Teotia, Michelle M. Bover Manderski, Binu Singh, Mary Hrywna, Olivia A. Wackowski, Michael B. Steinberg



Note: Open Access.


Related PR:


Many physicians have misconceptions about e-cigarettes



"Bans of menthol characterizing flavor have been proposed, however the effects on menthol cigarette smokers of including e-cigarettes in such bans are not clear. This study found that smokers randomized to a simulated ban on menthol in both cigarettes and e-cigarettes smoked more cigarettes per day over the 6-week study period than those randomized to a simulated ban on menthol in only cigarettes suggesting that smoking patterns among current menthol smokers differ depending on which products are included in a menthol ban."


Effect on Tobacco Use and Subjective Measures of Including E-cigarettes in a Simulated Ban of Menthol in Combustible Cigarettes

Nicotine Tob Res. 2022 Apr 17;ntac107. Online ahead of print.

Michael Kotlyar, Ryan Shanley, Sheena R Dufresne, Gretchen A Corcoran, Dorothy K Hatsukami



"Of on-license premises, 6.5% (95% CI: 5.3, 8.0) sold tobacco; 17.4% (95% CI: 14.0, 21.4) of hotels, 17.5% (95% CI: 13.8, 21.9) of taverns, and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.6, 3.2) of restaurants. Both retailer type and population density were associated with selling status… Few on-license premises in NZ [New Zealand] sell tobacco. Most retailers would support transitioning out of selling tobacco before the 2025 Smokefree goal, and they believed ending sales of tobacco would not negatively impact their business. However, businesses and customers in rural areas may be more affected than others."


Could we see the end of tobacco being sold in bars and pubs in New Zealand?

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac094.

Published: 13 April 2022

Louise Marsh, Ella Iosua, Robin Quigg, Julia Brillinger, Noeleen Venter, Sarah Wood



"Ads across all tobacco products included price incentives (96%) and contained themes that appealed to rural white (40%) and black audiences (15%). Themes known to appeal to youth and young adults were present in 40% of ads across all products, including 78% of ads promoting electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Moreover, among the ENDS ads featuring youth appealing themes (51%), also featured young models… Our findings highlight the need for regulations to address 1) the high prevalence of price incentives which undermine the effectiveness of excise taxes on tobacco use, and 2) ad themes and characteristics that appeal to groups vulnerable to tobacco use, both of which have the potential to further exacerbate tobacco related health disparities."


A content analysis of promotional features in US direct-mail from ads across tobacco products from 2018-2020

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac095.

Published: 13 April 2022

Nathan Silver, Basmah Rahman, Shanell Folger, Adrian Bertrand, Bushraa Khatib, Macred Gbenro, Barbara Schillo





Tobacco Use among Gender-Varying and Gender-Stable Adolescents and Adults Living in the U.S



"We found an increase in the frequency of single-nucleotide variants and small insertions and deletions with chronological age in never-smokers, with mutation frequencies significantly elevated among smokers. When plotted against smoking pack-years, mutations followed the linear increase in cancer risk until about 23 pack-years, after which no further increase in mutation frequency was observed, pointing toward individual selection for mutation avoidance. Known lung cancer-defined mutation signatures tracked with both age and smoking."


Single-cell analysis of somatic mutations in human bronchial epithelial cells in relation to aging and smoking

Nature Genetics volume 54, pages492–498 (2022)

Published: 11 April 2022

Zhenqiu Huang, Shixiang Sun, Moonsook Lee, Alexander Y. Maslov, Miao Shi, Spencer Waldman, Ava Marsh, Taha Siddiqui, Xiao Dong, Yakov Peter, Ali Sadoughi, Chirag Shah, Kenny Ye, Simon D. Spivack & Jan Vijg



Related PR:


Study suggests why most smokers don't get lung cancer


Why Do Some Smokers Never Get Lung Cancer?



"We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data that evaluated an association between cigarette smoking and risk of SPC [second primary cancer]… In a meta-analysis using six studies, an increased risk of smoking-related SPC was observed for both former (RR[relative risk]=1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20–1.67) and current smoking (RR=2.76; 95% CI 2.29–3.33), compared with never smoking… A two-fold increase in risk was observed for ever smoking compared with never smoking. In conclusion, there was evidence that smoking might increase the risk of SPC in cancer survivors."


Cigarette smoking and risk of second primary cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Cancer Epidemiol. 2022 Apr 14;78:102160. Online ahead of print.

Zhi Jing Phua, Robert J MacInnis, Harindra Jayasekara



"Exposure to secondhand smoke and secondhand aerosol was reported by 60.6% (95% CI=58.7, 62.4) and 44.5% (95% CI=42.1, 46.9) of U.S. youth, respectively. Among all students, 37.6% (95% CI=36.0, 39.2) and 53.3% (95% CI=51.4, 55.2) reported indoor and outdoor secondhand smoke exposure, respectively; 34.9% (95% CI=32.9, 37.4) and 36.8% (95% CI=34.6, 38.9) reported indoor and outdoor secondhand aerosol exposure, respectively. After adjustment, female versus male students (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.15-1.30) and those who currently use versus do not use combustible tobacco products (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.15-1.36) were more likely to report exposure to all outcomes."


Youth Indoor and Outdoor Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Secondhand Aerosol

Am J Prev Med. 2022 Apr 5;S0749-3797(22)00048-4. Online ahead of print.

Samantha Puvanesarajah, James Tsai, Dayna S Alexander, Michael A Tynan, Andrea S Gentzke




Note: Open Access.


"After adjustment for confounders, the estimated probability of surviving from age 65 to 85 years was 19 percentage points higher for persons with at least $300 000 in wealth (70%) than for those with no assets (51%), but there was a much larger 37 percentage point differential between never smokers (70%) and current smokers (33%)… Health care practitioners cannot modify their patient’s wealth, but they should continue to discourage smoking. Wealth may be associated with longevity, but just don’t smoke."


Assessment of Mortality Disparities by Wealth Relative to Other Measures of Socioeconomic Status Among US Adults

JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(4):e226547.

April 8, 2022

Dana A. Glei, Chioun Lee, Maxine Weinstein



Note: Open Access.


Related PR:


Smoking reduces wealth's tendency to increase life expectancy



"Among the six tobacco control measures (monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from tobacco smoke, quitting tobacco, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and raising taxes on tobacco) proposed in 2008, Japan has made no achievements in enforcing the advertisement ban. Consequently, tobacco advertisements still persistently appear in mass media, rendering the marketing strategies of tobacco companies in self-regulating their ads inefficient . People have no choice but to come across the ads, even if they wish to avoid them for children. However, it is not too late for Japan to follow the footsteps of Switzerland and other 164 countries."


Japan's position in the global standard to ban tobacco advertising in the media

J Epidemiol. 2022 Apr 16. Online ahead of print.

Masao Ichikawa, Takahiro Tabuchi




Note: Open Access.




Rassegna Stampa Scientifica Gennaio 2022


Health effects of tobacco at the global, regional, and national levels: results from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease study

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntab265.

Published: 20 December 2021

Hairong He, Zhenyu Pan, Jiayuan Wu, Chuanyu Hu, Ling Bai, Jun Lyu





Cigarette price increases, advertising ban, and pictorial warnings as determinants of youth smoking initiation in Poland


Are farmers willing to substitute tobacco cultivation? Evidence from Lichuan City, China


Clearing the air: Conflicts of Interest and the Tobacco Industry’s impact on Indigenous peoples



Note: Indigenous peoples' paper Open Access.


"An open-label, parallel group randomised trial was conducted in Australia between 2014 and 2015, with 1563 adult daily smokers… Conclusion: A free trial of NRT [nicotine replacement therapy] and first generation e-cigarettes and advice on long-term substitution was no better for smoking abstinence than usual care… The findings suggest that providing unflavoured cigalike e-cigarettes without additional support may not increase quitting compared with advice to use standard NRT in a general population of Australians who smoke."


A pragmatic randomised comparative trial of e-cigarettes and other nicotine products for quitting or long-term substitution in smokers

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntab266.

Published: 20 December 2021

Kylie Morphett, Doug Fraser, Ron Borland, Wayne Hall, Natalie Walker, Chris Bullen, Coral Gartner





E-Cigarette Dependence in Youth


Predicting Non-Adherence With Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness Who Smoke


An Analysis of Inpatient Tobacco Use Treatment Transition to Telehealth



"E-cigarette manufacturers’ schematic playbooks have included strategies for exploiting regulatory loopholes. Tobacco-free nicotine products may threaten ongoing public health efforts to reduce e-cigarette use among adolescents and young adults. We believe these products should be assumed to be as harmful to health as other nicotine products until evidence demonstrates otherwise. There is an urgent need for the FDA [Food & Drug Administration] to assert its regulatory authority over these products, since they are currently unregulated at the federal level."



Tobacco-free Nicotine — New Name, Same Scheme?

N Engl J Med 2021; 385:2406-2408

December 23, 2021

Sam N. Cwalina, Rob McConnell, Neal L. Benowitz, and Jessica L. Barrington-Trimis



"ENDS [Electronic nicotine delivery systems] and cigarette tax incidence is similar at the state level. Nonetheless, when federal cigarette taxes are considered, the cigarette tax incidence is higher than the tax incidence on closed-system ENDS. The proportion of states that impose value taxes is higher for open systems (65.4%) than for closed systems (46.2%). A value tax base is associated with a 7 percentage point lower tax incidence compared with a specific tax base. Product type further moderates the association between tax base and incidence… Policymakers who aim to prevent youth from using ENDS may consider a value tax base to raise the tax incidence of closed systems—the product type preferred by young people."


Tax incidence of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) in the USA

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 22 December 2021.

Ce Shang, Shaoying Ma, Eric N Lindblom






Transitions to smokeless tobacco use among adult cigarette smokers in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, Waves 3–5 (2015–2019)



Shifts in preference for Natural American Spirit and associated belief that one’s own cigarette brand might be less harmful than other brands: results from Waves 1–4 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study (2013–2018)


The Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe resists JUUL’s targeted exploitation



Note: ENDS tax incidence and PATH smokeless transitions papers Open Access.


"The ‘Reporting system of suspected adverse effects (AE) from e-cigarette and refill liquids’ has been developed to monitor the adverse effects on health among electronic cigarette users or non-users. Each MS [Member State] can adjust it on country-level aspects and to make the information flow process even more convenient. If MS or stakeholders have any suggestions to improve the reporting system, they may suggest improvements to the European Commission. The national authorities may consider the contribution of a section of the EU-CEG fee or e-cigarette product taxes for the development and implementation of a reporting system on suspected AE from electronic cigarettes and refill liquids."


Reporting system of suspected adverse effects from electronic cigarettes and refill liquids in Europe

Tob Prev Cessat. 2021 Dec 9;7:71. eCollection 2021.

Renata Solimini, Caitriona Stack, Kathleen Clifford, Laszlo Bencze, Francisco M Ruiz Dominguez, Constantine Ι Vardavas, Panagiotis Behrakis





Smoking status on subsequent readmission to hospital: The impact of inpatient brief interventions for smokers



Note: Open Access.


"In this cohort study [using US nationally representative data from the longitudinal Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study], daily e-cigarette use was associated with greater odds of cigarette discontinuation among smokers who initially had no plans to ever quit smoking. These findings support the consideration of smokers who are not planning to quit when evaluating the risk-benefit potential of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in the population."


Association of e-Cigarette Use With Discontinuation of Cigarette Smoking Among Adult Smokers Who Were Initially Never Planning to Quit

JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(12):e2140880.

December 28, 2021

Karin A. Kasza, Kathryn C. Edwards, Heather L. Kimmel, Andrew Anesetti-Rothermel, K. Michael Cummings, Raymond S. Niaura, Akshika Sharma, Erin M. Ellis, Rebecca Jackson, Carlos Blanco, Marushka L. Silveira, Dorothy K. Hatsukami, Andrew Hyland

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: …Dr Niaura reported serving… as an unpaid grant reviewer for the Foundation for a Smoke Free World [wholly funded by Philip Morris International].



Note: Open Access.


Related coverage:


"Since it was not a randomized trial and participants decided on their own whether or not to begin using e-cigarettes, the potential for unmeasured confounding was significant. Also, the authors noted, they did not examine changes in “quit intentions” as time went on and whether such changes were associated with actual quit rates for smoking. The study relied entirely on participants' self-reports of smoking habits and e-cigarette use. Finally, Kasza and colleagues did not determine how many participants who said they quit smoking later resumed, or quit again after initial relapse." [John Gever, Medpage Today]


Score One for Vapes in Smoking Cessation


E-cigarettes may help smokers quit even if they don't intend to, study finds



"The use of ENDS [electronic nicotine delivery systems] is an increasing trend across the nation among teenagers, young adults, and cigarette smokers who desire to quit smoking. Health care students must learn how to properly educate patients on the dangers of ENDS use and why ENDS should not be used as an alternative to traditional cigarette cessation. Health care students should be fully educated regarding these products so they are able to make informed risk-benefit analysis decisions. A standardized educational intervention for all health care students is needed to enhance the 5A’s method, implement motivational interviewing with empathic listening, and provide more hands-on experiences. "



The Need for Nationwide Electronic Cigarette Smoking Cessation Curricula Across the Healthcare Spectrum

Am J Pharm Educ. 2021 Nov;85(10):8212. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Taylor B Mitchell, Spruha Shah, Lindsay Zink




Note: Open Access.


"Multivariate analysis showed that conventional cigarette smokers were independently associated with a better knowledge about e-cigarettes (OR = 1.496, 95CI% = 1.018-2.197, p-value = 0.040). In addition, medical students showed a significantly better knowledge compared to non-medical students (OR = 1.710, 95CI% = 1.326-2.204, p-value = <0.001). In Jordan, e-cigarettes use is less popular compared to other countries. Nonetheless, educational interventions are needed to correct misconceptions about e-cigarettes among young adults."


E-cigarettes use among university students in Jordan: Perception and related knowledge

PLoS One. 2021 Dec 31;16(12):e0262090. eCollection 2021.

Nour A Al-Sawalha, Basima A Almomani, Enas Mokhemer, Samah F Al-Shatnawi, Roba Bdeir



Note: Open Access.


"We present a case of a 31-year-old man who came to our clinic with recurrent stuttering priapism. He had no chronic medical illnesses. He had smoked half a pack of cigarettes per day for the past 6 years but had shifted to vaping e-cigarettes for which he used several e-fluids and brands. His stuttering priapism started approximately 1 week after he began vaping… CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between stuttering priapism and e-cigarettes remains largely unexplored in the literature. Whether e-cigarettes and e-fluids represent a risk factor for priapism in novice e-cigarette smokers warrants further investigation."


Electronic Cigarettes as a Cause of Stuttering Priapism: A Case Report

Am J Case Rep. 2021 Dec 30;22:e935716.

Abdullah Mousa Alzahrani, Jumanah H Basalelah, Mishal S Alarifi, Shaheed S Alsuhaibani



Note: Open Access.


"In 1989, PMAI [Philip Morris Asia Inc.] conducted a study of potential Thai customers in which 24% of respondents' lack of availability (i.e., product placement) was one of the main reasons for not smoking PMI's [Philip Morris International's] products. Based on these findings, PMAI engaged in intensive internal efforts to address the placement barrier to gain share. PMAI placed considerable emphasis on "stimulating retail trade acceptance" by making payments to retailers who met agreed upon and contracted product sales targets. PMAI's initial successes incentivizing Thai retailers by essentially buying prime retail space for placement of their brands, to crowd out local and other foreign brands, became the foundation of what evolved into a sophisticated program to make placement highly lucrative for retailers."


Uncovering Philip Morris International's Fundamental Strategies for Product Placement in Thailand: Spotlighting Industry Penetration to Advance the Endgame

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2021 Dec 1;22(12):3789-3801.

Naowarut Charoenca, Nipapun Kungskulniti, Stephen Hamann, Jeremiah Mock




Note: Open Access.


"Among current smokers (N=39,534), 11.0% reported an increase in smoking, and 12.8% reported a decrease in smoking. Overall, 33.3% reported perceived stress and 3.7% reported depression… Lower education level, living alone, and poor subjective health status were associated with increased smoking. Being a woman and being of older age were associated with decreased smoking. Stress, depression, and anxiety about economic damage due to COVID-19 were more likely to result in increased smoking. Anxiety related to death due to COVID-19 was more likely to result in decreased smoking."


Smoking Behavior Changes during COVID-19 among Korean Adults

Am J Health Behav. 2021 Nov 15;45(6):1031-1040.

Mi Ah Han, Hae Ran Kim



"Multivariate analysis was performed on the risk factors for invasion diagnosed by postoperative pathological examination in all cases diagnosed with DCIS [ductal carcinoma in situ] by preoperative biopsy. Number of pack-years was not an independent factor (p=0.349, OR=0.329), but current-smoker status (p=0.006, OR=not calculable) was an independent factor with VAB (p=0.018, OR=0.327). Conclusion: Tobacco components may have an influence on the progression from DCIS to invasive ductal carcinoma."


The Effect of Smoking on Progression from Ductal Carcinoma In Situ to Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study

Anticancer Res. 2022 Jan;42(1):311-320.

Koji Takada, Shinichiro Kashiwagi, Yuka Asano, Wataru Goto, Tamami Morisaki, Masatsune Shibutani, Hiroaki Tanaka, Kosei Hirakawa, Masaichi Ohira 



"Of the 24 included studies [from an initial database and manual search that yielded 2050 studies], 46 different factors were identified to be significantly associated with nursing interventions for smoking cessation. The identified factors were grouped into the following four conceptually similar categories: (1) socioeconomic factors, (2) smoking-related factors, (3) motivational factors, and (4) enabling factors and barriers. In the future, nursing interventions for smoking cessation will need to be improved based on the identified factors."


Factors Associated with Nursing Interventions for Smoking Cessation: A Narrative Review

Nurs Rep. 2021 Feb 1;11(1):64-74.

Meng Li, Keiko Koide, Miho Tanaka, Misaki Kiya, Reiko Okamoto



Note: Open Access.


Heated tobacco products for smoking cessation and reducing smoking prevalence

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Version published: 06 January 2022

Harry Tattan-Birch, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Loren Kock, Erikas Simonavicius, Leonie Brose, Sarah Jackson, Lion Shahab, Jamie Brown




Note: Open Access.


Related Cochrane Review Authors' Essay:


Heated tobacco: a new review looks at the risks and benefits



"After excluding missing data, there were 1,173,646 participants. The adjusted odds ratio of visual impairment in current e-cigarette users compared with never e-cigarette users was 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-1.48), and in former e-cigarette users was 1.14 (95% CI 1.06-1.22)… Conclusions: Current compared with never e-cigarette usage was associated with a higher odds of visual impairment in the [BRFSS] Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System  2016-2018 population, independent of traditional cigarette use."


Association Between E-Cigarette Use and Visual Impairment in the United States

American Journal of Ophthalmology

VOLUME 235, P229-240, MARCH 01, 2022

Published: September 26, 2021

Abhinav Golla, Angela Chen, Victoria L. Tseng, Samuel Y. Lee, Deyu Pan, Fei Yu, Anne L. Coleman



Related coverage:


E-cigarette toxins may damage users’ sight



"Both current and ever ENDS [electronic nicotine delivery systems] use increased the probability of transitioning from never to current cigarette use (initiation) and decreased the probability of transitioning from current to non-current use (desistance). Current, but not ever, ENDS use also increased the probability of transitioning from non-current to current use (re-uptake)… Discussion: ENDS use in young adulthood increases the risk for cigarette smoking behaviors across the continuum of uptake and progression. Prevention and cessation efforts targeting both ENDS and cigarette use during young adulthood are needed."


Electronic nicotine delivery systems use predicts transitions in cigarette smoking among young adults

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 Dec 31;231:109251. Online ahead of print.

Alexandra Loukas, C Nathan Marti, Melissa B Harrell



"Our data demonstrated that e-cigarette use altered the oral microbiome in periodontitis patients, enriching members of the Filifactor, Treponema, and Fusobacterium taxa. For patients at the same periodontal disease stage, cigarette smokers and e-cigarette smokers shared more similarities in their oral bacterial composition. E-cigarette smoking may have a similar potential as cigarette smoking at altering the bacterial composition of saliva over time, leading to an increase in the relative abundance of periodontal disease-associated pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum."


Electronic cigarette use enriches periodontal pathogens

Mol Oral Microbiol. 2022 Jan 8. Online ahead of print.

Fangxi Xu, Smruti Pushalkar, Ziyan Lin, Scott C Thomas, Julia Kishanie Persaud, Maria A Sierra, Mridula Vardhan, Rebeca Vasconcelos, Adenike Akapo, Yuqi Guo, Terry Gordon, Patricia M Corby, Angela R Kamer, Xin Li, Deepak Saxena



"We followed 45 923 never-smoking women, aged 34-70 years [in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study], who completed a baseline questionnaire between 1991 and 2007 through linkages to national registries through December 2018… During a mean follow-up of 19.8 (6.8) years, 2185 women developed invasive breast cancer, confirmed by histology. Women exposed to SHS [secondhand smoke] from parents during childhood had an 11% higher (95% CI: 1.02-1.22) risk of breast cancer compared with those who were not… Conclusions: Our results suggest that 1 in 14 breast-cancer cases could have been avoided in the absence of SHS exposure from parents during childhood in a population of never-smoking women. The cancer burden attributable to SHS may be underestimated."


Never-smokers and the fraction of breast cancer attributable to second-hand smoke from parents during childhood: the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study 1991-2018

Int J Epidemiol. 2022 Jan 6;50(6):1927-1935.

Inger T Gram, Arne Bastian Wiik, Eiliv Lund, Idlir Licaj, Tonje Braaten





Maternal smoking and smokeless tobacco use during pregnancy and offspring development: sibling analysis in an intergenerational Swedish cohort



Note: Open Access.


"Compared with cigarette smokers, ST [smokeless tobacco] users had significantly higher concentrations of total nicotine equivalents (TNE) but lower concentrations of inflammatory (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule, fibrinogen) and oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) biomarkers (all p < .05)… Despite having higher levels of nicotine and compared with exclusive cigarette smokers, exclusive ST users (including those who were former cigarette smokers) had significantly lower concentrations of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, comparable to levels observed among never tobacco users."


Associations of Smokeless Tobacco Use With Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Insights From the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntab258.

Published: 06 January 2022

Mary Rezk-Hanna, Umme Shefa Warda, Andrew C Stokes, Jessica Fetterman, Jian Li, MD, Paul M Macey, Muhammad Darawad, Yeonsu Song, Ziyad Ben Taleb, Mary-Lynn Brecht, Neal L Benowitz



Related PR:


Switching to smokeless tobacco associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk in smokers



"Studies have revealed inconclusive results using agents including chewing tobacco and e-cigarettes to quit smoking and have demonstrated continued use of these agents. Many smoking harm reduction agents pose other health risks not found in traditional tobacco smoking. Given these limitations, efforts should focus on promoting nicotine replacement therapy, and other pharmacologic agents with a better chance of producing sustained smoking cessation. To address the harmful nature of many tobacco replacement products, public health should focus on regulating these alternatives with the same stringency as tobacco, and social marketing efforts should target evidence-based and safer pharmaceutical grade or behavioural alternatives."


Harm reduction in tobacco control: where do we draw the line?

J Public Health Policy. 2022 Jan 8. Online ahead of print.

Mohammed Al-Hamdani, Eden Manly





Association of preferred flavorings and device type with box or pack purchase behavior of electronic nicotine delivery systems in the United States



"The major U.S. tobacco companies directed the bulk of their vast spending on the retail environment since 1988. Moreover, they have dramatically shifted their marketing strategies within the retail category from cigarette advertising before 2003 to customer-directed price discounts since then. This shift may imply a change in focus from recruiting new smokers to retaining current smokers, in response to tax increases and government regulations. Accordingly, restrictions on price-related promotions in retail and non-tax strategies should be implemented to counter tobacco companies’ marketing efforts in retail."


Trends in Cigarette Marketing Expenditures, 1975-2019: An Analysis of Federal Trade Commission Cigarette Reports

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntab272.

Published: 05 January 2022

Haijing Ma, Alexandria E Reimold, Kurt M Ribisl



"Barriers to supporting smoking cessation or temporary abstinence in mental health settings mainly fell within the domains: environmental context and resources (e.g. MHPs [mental healthcare professionals'] lack of time); knowledge (e.g. interactions around smoking that did occur were ill-informed); social influences (e.g. smoking norms within social network), and intentions (e.g. MHPs lack positive intentions to deliver support)."


A systematic review of mental health professionals, patients and carers’ perceived barriers and enablers to supporting smoking cessation in mental health settings

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac004.

Published: 08 January 2022

Lisa Huddlestone, Emily Shoesmith, Jodi Pervin, Fabiana Lorencatto, Jude Watson, Elena Ratschen



Note: Open Access.


"At baseline, smokers were more likely to be lonely (coef.=0·111, 95% CI 0·025 – 0·196) and socially isolated than non-smokers, having less frequent social interactions with family and friends (coef.= 0·297, 95%CI 0·148 – 0·446), less frequent engagement with community and cultural activities (coef.= 0·534, 95%CI 0·421 – 0·654), and being more likely to live alone (Odds Ratio =1·400, 95%CI 1·209 – 1·618)… Interpretation: Smoking is associated with the development of increasing social isolation and loneliness in older adults, suggesting smoking is detrimental to aspects of psychosocial health. The idea that smoking might be prosocial appears a misconception."


Relationship of smoking with current and future social isolation and loneliness: 12-year follow-up of older adults in England

Lancet Regional Health Europe

VOLUME 14, 100302, MARCH 01, 2022

Published: January 02, 2022

Keir EJ Philip. Feifei Bu, Michael I Polkey, Jamie Brown, Andrew Steptoe, Nicholas S Hopkinson, Daisy Fancourt




Note: Open Access.


Related PR:


New findings suggest smoking increases social isolation and loneliness



"Regional trends in longitudinal consumption patterns identify stable or decreasing consumption throughout Northern, Western and Southern European countries, while Eastern and Southeastern European countries experienced much greater instability. The 11 emergent classes of historical cigarette consumption trajectories were also regionally clustered, including a distinctive inverted U or sine wave pattern repeatedly emerging from former Soviet and Southeastern European countries."


Classifying European cigarette consumption trajectories from 1970 to 2015

Tob Control. 2022 Jan 7;tobaccocontrol-2021-056627. Online ahead of print.

Mathieu Jp Poirier, Gigi Lin, Leah K Watson, Steven J Hoffman






Exposure of 4-year to 24-year olds to tobacco imagery on prime-time Chilean television



Comprehensive Dutch market data analysis shows that e-liquids with nicotine salts have both higher nicotine and flavour concentrations than those with free-base nicotine




Note: Open Access.


"Quitting smoking at or around diagnosis was significantly associated with improved overall survival (SRR 0.80, 95%CI 0.73-0.96), consistently among patients with non-small cell LC [lung cancer] (SRR 0.79, 95% CI 0.67-0.93, n studies = 7), small cell LC (SRR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57-0.99, n studies = 4), or LC of both or unspecified histological type (SRR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.96, n studies = 6)… Treating physicians should educate LC patients about the benefits of quitting smoking even after diagnosis and provide them with the necessary smoking cessation support."


Quitting smoking at or around diagnosis improves the overall survival of lung cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Journal of Thoracic Oncology

Published: January 04, 2022

Saverio Caini, Marco Del Riccio, Virginia Vettori, Vieri Scotti, Chiara Martinoli, Sara Raimondi, Giulio Cammarata, Domenico Palli, Marco Banini, Giovanna Masala, Sara Gandini



Related coverage:


Smoking cessation after cancer diagnosis associated with improved survival



"It is well recognized that smoking is associated with suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, suicide death and a contributing factor in the pathophysiology of suicide. The author highlights the evidence that suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased tobacco consumption as smokers use more tobacco to cope with pandemic-related stress, anxiety, depression and loneliness. Smoking will have significant psychobiological effects resulting in enhanced impulsivity and aggression which will be compounded by in particular the brain-related symptoms."


The Long-COVID Syndrome: smoking and enhanced suicide risk

QJM. 2022 Jan 5;114(11):765.

Seamas C Donnelly 



Cigarette prices and smoking among youth in 16 African countries: Evidence from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac017.

Published: 17 January 2022

Samantha Filby, Corne van Walbeek





Think Globally, Act Locally: Local Tobacco Control



Note: Open Access.


"We analysed data from 134 909 participants from 21 countries followed up for a median of 11·3 years in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) cohort study; 9711 participants with myocardial infarction and 11 362 controls from 52 countries in the INTERHEART case-control study; and 11 580 participants with stroke and 11 331 controls from 32 countries in the INTERSTROKE case-control study… In PURE, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the composite outcome in current smokers (vs never smokers) was higher in HICs [high-income countries] (HR 1·87, 95% CI 1·65-2·12) than in MICs [middle-income countries] (1·41, 1·34-1·49) and LICs [low-income countries] (1·35, 1·25-1·46; interaction p<0·0001). Similar patterns were observed for each component of the composite outcome in PURE, myocardial infarction in INTERHEART, and stroke in INTERSTROKE. The median levels of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide displayed on the cigarette packs from PURE HICs were higher than those on the packs from MICs."


Variations in risks from smoking between high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: an analysis of data from 179 000 participants from 63 countries

Lancet Glob Health. 2022 Feb;10(2):e216-e226.

Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Koon K Teo, Philip Britz-McKibbin, Biban Gill, Shofiqul Islam, Guillaume Paré, Sumathy Rangarajan, MyLinh Duong, Fernando Lanas, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Prem K Mony, Lakshmi Pinnaka, Vellappillil Raman Kutty, Andres Orlandini, Alvaro Avezum, Andreas Wielgosz, Paul Poirier, Khalid F Alhabib, Ahmet Temizhan, Jephat Chifamba, Karen Yeates, Iolanthé M Kruger, Rasha Khatib, Rita Yusuf, Annika Rosengren, Katarzyna Zatonska, Romaina Iqbal, Weida Lui, Xinyue Lang, Sidong Li, Bo Hu, Antonio L Dans, Afzal Hussein Yusufali, Ahmad Bahonar, Martin J O’Donnell, Martin McKee, Salim Yusuf




Related Lancet Glob Health Comment:


Strengthening tobacco control must remain a global health priority




Note: Open Access.


"In 2020, an estimated 69.9% of U.S. adults supported pictorial warnings, 9.1% opposed, and 20.9% neither supported nor opposed them… Implications: While public support for pictorial warnings on cigarette packages is high in the U.S., it may increase further after policy implementation and be strengthened by utilizing information campaigns that convey the evidence that pictorial warnings are an effective public health strategy."


Public support for cigarette pack pictorial health warnings among U.S. adults: A cross-sectional analysis of the 2020 Health Information National Trends Survey

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntab263.

Published: 21 January 2022

Annette R Kaufman, Heather D’Angelo, Anna Gaysynsky, Andrew B Seidenberg, Robert E Vollinger, Kelly Blake



"Across survey waves, the percentage of participants in provinces with POS [point-of-sale] bans established for more than 24 months increased from 5.0% to 95.8%. There was no association between POS bans and quit attempts for provinces with bans in place for 0–24 months or more than 24 months, respectively (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=0.99, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.10; 1.03, 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.20). However, we found a differential impact of POS bans on quit attempts by sex, whereby bans were more effective for women than men for bans of 0–24 months… Conclusion: POS bans are associated with increased smoking cessation overall and more quit attempts among women than men."


Differential impact of the Canadian point-of-sale tobacco display bans on quit attempts and smoking cessation outcomes by sex, income and education: longitudinal findings from the ITC Canada Survey

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 11 January 2022.

Bukola Usidame, Yanmei Xie, James F Thrasher, Paula Lozano, Michael R Elliott, Geoffrey T Fong, Nancy L Fleischer



"The results suggest that perception of ENDS [electronic nicotine delivery systems] as less harmful than cigarettes significantly decreased from 54.3% at Wave 1 (2013) to 30.4% at Wave 4 (2018) (P < 0.001). Perception of ENDS as no or little harm decreased from 35.9% at Wave 1 to 16.9% at Wave 4 (P < 0.001)… Conclusions: Our study showed that US adolescents have become more aware of ENDS harms over time. These changes in harm perception were less noticeable among those who were males, did not have positive tobacco-related attitudes, had smoke-free home rules, ever used ENDS or alcohol, and lived with someone who used tobacco. Such results not only highlight some of the common patterns shared with other tobacco products but also underscore the unique factors specific to ENDS."


Changes in harm perception of ENDS and their predictors among US adolescents: Findings from the population assessment of tobacco and health (PATH) study, 2013-2018

Prev Med. 2022 Jan 20;106957. Online ahead of print.

Wei Li, Olatokunbo Osibogun, Tan Li, Matthew T Sutherland, Wasim Maziak



"Among the total sample [of youth in Connecticut and California (N = 10,482; ages 13-24)], combustible tobacco use was associated with any e-cigarette device use (vs. no e-cigarette use) in the pooled analysis across all studies. Among past-month e-cigarette users, combustible tobacco use across all studies was 15.8%- 61.5%. Pooled associations among past-month e-cigarette users showed that using disposable devices (vs. pods; AOR=2.83, 95% CI: 1.73-4.61) and multiple devices most frequently (vs. pods; AOR=2.13, 95% CI: 1.16-3.90) was associated with greater odds of combustible tobacco use."


E-cigarette device type and combustible tobacco use: Results from a pooled analysis of 10,482 youth

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2022 Jan 11;232:109279. Online ahead of print.

Grace Kong, Benjamin W Chaffee, Ran Wu, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Feifei Liu, Adam M Leventhal, Rob McConnell, Jessica Barrington-Trimis



"Both cross-sectional (Cohort 1 vs Cohort 2) and prospective (pre-post Tobacco 21 in Cohort 1) analyses indicated a slight decline in most tobacco use from 2016 to 2018, but e-cigarette use more than doubled during the same period. Students enrolled throughout the transition to Tobacco 21 (Cohort 1) perceived little effect of Tobacco 21 on peer use… Conclusions: Tobacco 21 was associated with reductions in combustible and smokeless tobacco use, but its impact was not sufficient to curb the surge in e-cigarette use."


Tobacco 21's Impact Amid the E-Cigarette Surge

Public Health Rep. 2022 Jan 21;333549211061772. Online ahead of print.

Megan E Roberts, Brittney Keller-Hamilton, Andreas A Teferra



"In a multivariable adjusted logistic regression model, e-cigarette use was significantly associated with male gender (OR:3.2; 95% CI:1.5–6.7) and cigarette smoking (OR:14.7; 95% CI:5.5–39.0 for daily smoking)… In addition, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher among e-cigarette users compared to non-users (36.7% vs. 22.3% with BMI≥25 kg/m2)… Attention should be given to respiratory symptoms among e-cigarette users, although our results may be explained by the concurrent use of conventional cigarettes, as the group of exclusive e-cigarette users were too small to allow firm conclusions."


Predictors of electronic cigarette use and its association with respiratory health and obesity in young adulthood in Sweden; findings from the population-based birth cohort BAMSE

Environ Res. 2022 Jan 20;112760. Online ahead of print.

Shanzina Iasmin Sompa, Anna Zettergren, Sandra Ekström, Swapna Upadhyay, Koustav Ganguly, Antonios Georgelis, Petter Ljungman, Göran Pershagen, Inger Kull, Erik Melén, Lena Palmberg, Anna Bergström



Note: Open Access.


"Overall, 58% support a comprehensive flavoured tobacco product sales ban, and 59% support a flavoured e-cigarette product sales ban. In addition, 81% support limiting the amount of nicotine in e-cigarette pods, and 91% support mandating vaping health warning signs at local retailers. Flavour bans were more likely to be backed by women, seniors, Latinos, non-smokers and non-vapers. Participants who believe minors have more access to flavoured products had greater odds of supporting all policies. Those aware of the association between e-cigarettes and lung injury were more likely to support non-ban policies. Participants who believe e-cigarettes help to reduce tobacco use or e-cigarettes are relatively less addictive were less likely to support bans."


Public support for policies to regulate flavoured tobacco and e-cigarette products in rural California

Tob Control. 2022 Jan 21;tobaccocontrol-2021-057031. Online ahead of print.

Denise Diaz Payán, Nancy J Burke, Jamie Persinger, Juliette Martinez, Lisa Jones Barker, Anna V Song 




Note: Open Access.


"An online survey and discrete choice experiment on a nationally-representative sample of adult smokers in the US who reported low interest in quitting (n=2000)… Participants formed two latent classes: (1) those with very strong preferences for their own cigarettes; and (2) those whose choices were more responsive to policies. The latter group’s choices were only somewhat responsive to menthol cigarette bans and taxes; the former group’s choices were unresponsive. Conclusions: The policies studied seem unlikely to encourage harm reduction for individuals with little interest in quitting smoking."


Harm reduction for smokers with little to no quit interest: can tobacco policies encourage switching to e-cigarettes?

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 19 January 2022.

John Buckell, Lisa M Fucito, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Stephanie O'Malley, Jody L Sindelar





E-cigarette vending machines: a new access channel for youth in Guatemala City


Diffusion of smoke-free policies at outdoor sports clubs in the Netherlands



"Findings suggest FCVs [flavour capsule variants] are marketed using a mix of strategies, particularly characterised by product innovation, timing market launches around tobacco policies, point-of-sale advertising and packaging to communicate a high-tech, customisable and flavourful product."


Marketing of flavour capsule cigarettes: a systematic review

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 18 January 2022.

Christina N Kyriakos, Mateusz Zygmunt Zatoński, Filippos T Filippidis



"The growing body of evidence surrounding e-cigarette exposure indicates that chronic e-cigarette use will result in changes to the pulmonary environment. In vivo and in vitro models of exposure consistently show dysregulated inflammatory cytokine output, potentially driven by oxidative stress, and disproportionate and ineffective pathogen responses. These changes reflect some elements of the immunopathogenesis of smoking and COPD [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease], although directly comparable studies are limited thus far."


Predicting the pulmonary effects of long-term e-cigarette use: are the clouds clearing?

European Respiratory Review 2022 31: 210121

Published online January 12, 2022.

Lauren C. Davis, Elizabeth Sapey, David R. Thickett, Aaron Scott




Note: Open Access.


"Our stable isotope tracing experiments provide further evidence that thermal decomposition of vegetable glycerin in the e-cigarette solvent leads to generation of acrolein and glycidol. This suggests that the adverse health effects of e-cigarettes may be attributable in part to these reactive compounds formed through the process of aerosolizing nicotine."


Electronic Cigarette Solvents, JUUL E-Liquids, and Biomarkers of Exposure: In Vivo Evidence for Acrolein and Glycidol in E-Cig-Derived Aerosols

Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2022, XXXX, XXX, XXX-XXX

Publication Date: January 19, 2022

Pawel Lorkiewicz, Rachel Keith, Jordan Lynch, Lexiao Jin, Whitney Theis, Tatiana Krivokhizhina, Daniel Riggs, Aruni Bhatnagar, Sanjay Srivastava, and Daniel J. Conklin



Note: Open Access.




Characterizing the Chemical Landscape in Commercial E-Cigarette Liquids and Aerosols by Liquid Chromatography–High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry



"These new policies are designed to counteract access, addiction, and promotion of smoked tobacco and seem both justified and proportionate to the level of associated risk to both individuals and society. The effect of the new measures in the context of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy requires detailed evaluation, but as the world’s most ambitious tobacco control plan to date, its success or failure will provide lessons for us all."



New Zealand’s bold new tobacco control programme

BMJ 2022;376:o62 (Published 18 January 2022)

Sanjay Agrawal



"From the 630,278 critically ill trauma patients identified, 116,068 (18.4%) were current cigarette smokers. Critically ill trauma smokers, compared to non-smokers, had a higher rate of pneumonia (7.8% vs. 6.9%, p < 0.001) and lower mortality rate (4.0% vs. 8.0%, p < 0.001)… Conclusion: Critically ill trauma smokers had a decreased associated mortality risk compared to non-smokers possibly due to biologic adaptations such as increased oxygen delivery developed from smoking. Future basic science and translational studies are needed to pursue potential novel therapeutic benefits without the deleterious long-term side effects of smoking."


Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Decreased Mortality in Critically Ill Trauma Patients

Shock. 2022 Jan 20. Online ahead of print.

Areg Grigorian, Catherine M Kuza, Patrick T Delaplain, Mandeep Singh, Oscar Hernandez Dominguez, Trung Vu, Michael P Kim, Jeffry Nahmias



"Consumer demands and innovation have led to an increasingly diverse range of nicotine delivery systems, driven by a desire to reduce risk associated with traditional combustible cigarettes. This speed of change provides a mandate for rapid new product assessment. We have used the validated technology ToxTracker®, to assess biomarkers of DNA damage, protein misfolding, oxidative and cellular stress, across the categories of cigarette (1R6F), tobacco heating product (THP1.4) and electronic cigarette (ePen 3)."


Application of ToxTracker for the toxicological assessment of tobacco and nicotine delivery products

Toxicol Lett. 2022 Jan 19;S0378-4274(22)00016-9. Online ahead of print.

David E Smart, Stela Bozhilova, Fabio Miazzi, Linsey E Haswell, M D Gaca, David Thorne, Damien Breheny

Competing interests

All authors are (or were at the time of study conduct) employees of British American Tobacco (BAT). The work was fully funded by BAT. ePen 3 is manufactured and marketed by BAT.



Note: Open Access tobacco industry research.


Symptoms COVID 19 Positive Vapers Compared to COVID 19 Positive Non-vapers

Journal of Primary Care & Community Health

First Published January 5, 2022

David D. McFadden, Shari L. Bornstein, Robert Vassallo, Bradley R. Salonen, Mohammed Nadir Bhuiyan, Darrell R. Schroeder, Ivana T. Croghan




Note: Open Access.


Related PR:


E-cigarette users who test positive for COVID-19 are more likely to experience COVID-19 symptoms




"We conducted a web-based cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 6,003 Italian adults during the strictest phase of the Covid-19 lockdown (April–May 2020)… E-cigarettes and HTPs [heated tobacco products] played little role as smoking cessation tools for hardcore smokers but rather provided opportunities for young never smokers to engage in socially acceptable activities, perhaps reflecting the obstacles they faced in obtaining other addictive substances during confinement."


Use of electronic cigarettes and heated tobacco products during the Covid-19 pandemic

Scientific Reports volume 12, Article number: 702 (2022)

Published: 13 January 2022

Silvano Gallus, Chiara Stival, Giulia Carreras, Giuseppe Gorini, Andrea Amerio, Martin McKee, Anna Odone, Piet A. van den Brandt, Lorenzo Spizzichino, Roberta Pacifici & Alessandra Lugo




Note: Open Access.


"The proportion of registered callers with an expressed intent to quit tobacco increased by 1.73 times during pandemic (16.7% versus 9.6%). Health concerns were cited as the major reason (93.25%) to quit tobacco in 2020 as compared to 2019 (88.02%). Cough (28.50%) and psychological difficulties (14.20%) were reported significantly more by RCs [registered callers] in 2020… Conclusion: The pandemic resulted in a greater intent to quit among registered callers to the quitline. However, awareness about the quitline services as well as other tobacco cessation services needs to be expanded to reach more tobacco users."


Impact of Covid -19 on caller characteristics and quit rates: An experience from regional tobacco Quitline from India

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac013.

Published: 12 January 2022

Pradeep Kumar, Pratima Murthy, R P Lohit, Sudarshan Hegde, Prabhat Chand, Lakshmanan Sethuraman





Changes in Smoking Behavior, Stress, and Sleep Duration among Israeli Hospital Workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study



Note: Indian Quitline paper Open Access.


"Prevalence of secondhand nicotine vape increased from 11.7% to 15.6% during the study period in this population [in the prospective Southern California Children Health Study cohort]. Prevalence of wheeze, bronchitic symptoms and shortness of breath ranged from 12.3% to 14.9%, 19.4% to 26.0% and 16.5% to 18.1%, respectively, during the study period. Associations of secondhand nicotine vape exposure with bronchitic symptoms (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.84) and shortness of breath (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.21) were observed after controlling for vaping, active and passive exposure to tobacco or cannabis, and demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity and parental education)."


Secondhand nicotine vaping at home and respiratory symptoms in young adults

Thorax Published Online First: 10 January 2022.

Talat Islam, Jessica Braymiller, Sandrah P Eckel, Feifei Liu, Alayna P Tackett, Meghan E Rebuli, Jessica Barrington-Trimis, Rob McConnell




Note: Open Access.


Related coverage & PR:


Exposure to second-hand nicotine from VAPING doubles risk of young adults developing a wheeze, study finds


Secondhand nicotine vaping at home linked to heightened risk of bronchitic symptoms in young adults


Secondhand nicotine vaping at home may increase risk of bronchitic symptoms in young adults




"Disagreement that companies lie about harm (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)= 1.94, 95% CI: 1.43-2.63) and companies want young people to vape (aOR=1.72, 95% CI: 1.36-2.17) was associated with increased odds of current use. Belief that e-cigarette and cigarette companies were different entities was associated with increased odds of current use (aOR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.12-1.88)… Conclusion: Similar to cigarettes, e-cigarette industry beliefs were associated with current use among young people. Highlighting e-cigarettes' connection to Big Tobacco may be an important strategy to prevent youth and young adult e-cigarette use."


Associations of e-cigarette industry beliefs and e-cigarette use and susceptibility among youth and young adults in the United States

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 Oct 27;231:109126. Online ahead of print.

Alison F Cuccia, Minal Patel, Elexis C Kierstead, W Douglas Evans, Barbara A Schillo





Responses to e-cigarette health messages among young adult sexual minoritized women and nonbinary people assigned female at birth: Assessing the influence of message theme and format



"The top five most important predictors of perceived success in vaping-assisted smoking cessation were more positive experiences measured by the Vaping Experiences Score (100%), less previously failed quit attempts by vaping (39.0%), younger age (21.9%), having vaped 100 times (16.8%), and vaping shortly after waking up (15.8%). Our findings provide strong statistical evidence that shows better vaping experiences are associated with greater perceived success in smoking cessation by vaping. Furthermore, our study confirmed the strength of machine learning techniques in vaping-related outcomes research based on observational data."


Predictors of perceived success in quitting smoking by vaping: A machine learning approach

PLoS One. 2022 Jan 14;17(1):e0262407. eCollection 2022.

Rui Fu, Robert Schwartz, Nicholas Mitsakakis, Lori M Diemert, Shawn O'Connor, Joanna E Cohen



Note: Open Access.


Hopkinson: Yes: "Medically licensed devices have the potential to be more effective than consumer devices because they can be made available in strengths greater than those permitted for consumer products (that is, containing more than 20 mg/mL nicotine). A Cochrane Collaboration systematic review already supports existing e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid, as does recently updated guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence."… Vestbo, Bush, Grigg: No: "There is already enough nicotine addiction… No country in the world other than the UK has licensed e-cigarettes as drugs, and for good reasons. E-cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation have not been endorsed by a single major respiratory or paediatric scientific society because their effectiveness in smoking cessation is unproved—and remarkably poorly studied… Many e-cigarettes are produced and marketed by companies owned by the tobacco industry—an industry with a history of lying to the public and spending fortunes on marketing, including to teenagers."


Head To Head

Should e-cigarettes be licensed as medicines?

BMJ 2022;376:n2912 (Published 12 January 2022)

Nicholas S Hopkinson, Jørgen Vestbo, Andrew Bush, Jonathan Grigg




Note: Open Access.


Related PR:


Should e-cigarettes be licensed as medicines?



"Initiation rates were 5.9% for nicotine vaping and 8.6% for cannabis vaping, at 12-month follow-up overall [in 79 public and private schools in Texas]. Higher perceived parental knowledge was associated with lower odds of nicotine vaping initiation at 6 months (adj OR: .69; 95% CI: .50-.93) and 12 months (adj OR: .68; 95% CI: .50-.92)… Conclusion: E-cigarette prevention efforts directed at adolescents should incorporate parent engagement strategies as a method of increasing actual and perceived parental knowledge of their child's location, activities and peer groups."


Perceived Parental Knowledge Reduces Risk for Initiation of Nicotine and Cannabis Vaping: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescents

Am J Health Promot. 2022 Jan 14;8901171211061941. Online ahead of print.

Dale S Mantey, Stephanie L Clendennen, Andrew E Springer, Melissa B Harrell



"One must ask if we should be enquiring about a patient's social history from a younger age? It is not standard practice to ask those below 16 if they use nicotine products; this trend may change that. As healthcare professionals, we have a pivotal role in educating our patients in order to prevent an addiction which may be very difficult to overcome once established."




Vaping: should we be worried?

Br Dent J. 2022 Jan;232(1):5-6.

O Mudhar




Note: Open Access.


"In this study, we have compared two distinct systems; the modified Vitrocell VC10 and Borgwaldt LM4E designed to deliver undiluted e-cigarette aerosol. We assessed the cytotoxicity response of 3D reconstituted lung tissue (MucilAir) exposed to undiluted aerosol from ePen3 (closed modular e-cigarette) using these two exposure systems… The parity of responses between the systems in generated undiluted aerosol has allowed us to compare back to previously published eBox data, irrespective of aerosol generating system and MucilAir donor, showing how evolution from open systems to podmod e-cigarette design can make a step change in the cytotoxicity profile of the product."


A 3D in vitro comparison of two undiluted e-cigarette aerosol generating systems

Toxicol Lett. 2022 Jan 12;S0378-4274(22)00013-3. Online ahead of print.

E Bishop, A Terry, N East, D Breheny, M Gaca, D Thorne

Declaration of Interest

The authors are employees of British American Tobacco and the work was funded by British American Tobacco.



Note: Tobacco industry research.


"Messaging on mortality effects of VLNC [very low nicotine content] cigarettes (i.e., cigarettes with 95% less nicotine are as deadly as current cigarettes) was associated with more accurate perceptions of the health risks of VLNC cigarettes than the control; however, misperceptions remained in one-third of participants."


Educating the public on the health risks of very low nicotine content cigarettes: Results from a U.S.-based convenience sample

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac010.

Published: 12 January 2022

Mac Kenzie Differding, Sherri Jean Katz, Lori G Strayer, Cassidy White, Andrew A Strasser, Eric C Donny, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Dana Mowls Carroll



"In all snus products combined, the nicotine content per gram snus (mg/g) increased from 16.3 to 24.1, while nicotine per serving (mg/s) was stable around 13.0… Conclusions: In a period with increasing snus use [in Norway], the nicotine content in snus increased per gram snus, but not per serving. The stability in nicotine per serving is likely due to a decreasing market share of loose snus which accounted for 54 percent of the snus products in 2005 and 5 percent in 2020, and which traditionally has a high content of nicotine per serving."


Nicotine content in Swedish type snus sold in Norway from 2005 to 2020

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac006.

Published: 11 January 2022

Tord Finne Vedøy, Karl Erik Lund



Note: Open Access.


"The odds of one-day relapse were significantly higher for women than for men in six countries (adjusted for nine individual-level sociodemographic variables), and there were no significant sex differences in the remaining six countries [in the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2008–2012)]. Result remained significant after meta-regressions for national-level tobacco consumption and policy measures… Larger warning labels on cigarette packs were associated with reduced odds of one-day relapse among women… Tailored interventions incorporating national policies, in addition to counseling and pharmacotherapy, could play an essential role in supporting women during the initial abstinence phase of smoking cessation in LMICs [low- and middle-income countries]."


The first day of smoking abstinence is more challenging for women than men: A meta-analysis and meta-regression across 12 low- and middle-income countries

Addictive Behaviors

Volume 128, May 2022, 107234

Available online 3 January 2022.

João M. Castaldelli-Maia, Elizabeth D. Nesoff, Danielle R. Lima, Zila M. Sanchez, Silvia S. Martins



Related PR:


First day of attempting to quit smoking is especially tough for women









Rassegna Stampa Scientifica Febbraio 2022




Association of Electronic Cigarette Use with Respiratory Symptom Development among US Young Adults

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2022 Jan 28. Online ahead of print.

Wubin Xie, Alayna P Tackett, Jonathan B Berlowitz, Alyssa F Harlow, Hasmeena Kathuria, Panagis Galiatsatos, Jessica L Fetterman, Junhan Cho, Michael J Blaha, Naomi M Hamburg, Rose Marie Robertson, Andrew P DeFilippis, Michael E Hall, Aruni Bhatnagar, Emelia J Benjamin, Andrew C Stokes 



"We agree also that much more needs to be done in the United States and in countries around the world to reduce the burden of combustible products quickly and decisively and to help smokers quit. However, highlighting e-cigarettes and harm reduction as the only solution disregards the critical utility of proven, established, science-supported interventions. We strongly encourage the scientific community to consider how e-cigarettes (in all of their heterogeneity of design and use patterns) perform in the real world when making conclusions about their effects and move away from the opponents/supporters false dichotomy."



Balancing Consideration of the Risks and Benefits of E-Cigarettes

American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) September 2021

Published Online: September 22, 2021

David J. K. Balfour, Neal L. Benowitz, Suzanne M. Colby, Dorothy K. Hatsukami, Harry A. Lando, Scott J. Leischow, Caryn Lerman, Robin J. Mermelstein, Raymond Niaura, Kenneth A. Perkins, Ovide F. Pomerleau, Nancy A. Rigotti, Gary E. Swan, Kenneth E. Warner, and Robert West



Note: Open Access.


"Young poly-EC [e-cigarette] device users were more likely to begin using at a younger age, live with and have close friends who were EC users, and report greater nicotine dependence. Identifying temporality in these associations can identify youth at greater risk of poly-EC use."


Correlates of youth Poly-E-Cigarette device use

Addict Behav. 2022 Jan 21;129:107248. Online ahead of print.

Nina Hoffmeyer, Alice Hinton, Theodore L Wagener, Alayna P Tackett



"Menthol was the main ingredient in all capsules, and the carcinogenic pulegone was detected. Detected menthofuran, benzyl alcohol, geraniol, and eugenol cause toxic or severe irritation, and detected lactones can increase nicotine addiction by inhibiting nicotine metabolism in smokers. Margin of exposures for carcinogenic pulegone and non-carcinogenic menthol were well below safety thresholds, indicating a significant risk of inhalation exposure. It is desirable to prohibit the use of flavor capsules in consideration of human risk."


Flavor components in tobacco capsules identified through non-targeted quantitative analysis

J Mass Spectrom. 2022 Jan 17;57(2):e4811. Online ahead of print.

Hyun-Hee Lim, Kyeong-Yun Choi, Ho-Sang Shin 



"US direct advertising expenditures for cigarettes fell from 80% of total industry marketing expenditures in 1975 to less than 3% in 2019, while falling from 39% in 1985 to 6% in 2019 for smokeless tobacco. Price discounting expenditures for cigarettes became prominent after the Master Settlement Agreement and related tax increases in 2002. By 2019, 87% of cigarette marketing expenditures were for price discounts and 7% for promotional allowances. Smokeless marketing expenditures were similar: 72% for price promotions and 13% for promotional allowances. Price discounting increased with prices and taxes until reaching their currently high levels."


Follow the money: a closer look at US tobacco industry marketing expenditures

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 24 January 2022.

David T Levy, Alex C Liber, Christopher Cadham, Luz Maria Sanchez-Romero, Andrew Hyland, Michael Cummings, Cliff Douglas, Rafael Meza, Lisa Henriksen






‘That is a Ministry of Health thing’: Article 5.3 implementation in Uganda and the challenge of whole-of-government accountability




Note: Open Access, as are a number of other Tobacco Control papers newly Online First.


"Patients who vaped and developed Covid-19 infection were more likely to have chest pain or tightness (16% vs 10%, vapers vs non vapers, P = .005), chills (25% vs 19%, vapers vs non vapers, P = .0016), myalgia (39% vs 32%, vapers vs non vapers, P = .004), headaches (49% vs 41% vapers vs non vapers, P = .026), anosmia/dysgeusia (37% vs 30%, vapers vs non vapers, P = .009), nausea/vomiting/abdominal pain (16% vs 10%, vapers vs non vapers, P = .003), diarrhea (16% vs 10%, vapers vs non vapers, P = .004), and non-severe light-headedness (16% vs 9%, vapers vs non vapers, P < .001)."


Symptoms COVID 19 Positive Vapers Compared to COVID 19 Positive Non-vapers

J Prim Care Community Health. Jan-Dec 2022;13:21501319211062672.

David D McFadden, Shari L Bornstein, Robert Vassallo, Bradley R Salonen, Mohammed Nadir Bhuiyan, Darrell R Schroeder, Ivana T Croghan




Note: Open Access.


"Tobacco toll on morbidity and mortality is several times higher than those from COVID-19 so far and is a risk factor for worse outcomes for people infected by the virus. Therefore, tobacco places an additional strain on healthcare systems especially in low- and middle-income countries. Looking forward, Jordan seeks to continue to strengthen their tobacco control policies and enforcement mechanism for effective inspection by holding trainings for relevant stakeholders as well as conducting communication campaigns to that end."


COVID-19 as a game changer for national tobacco policies: the experience of Jordan

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac022.

Published: 25 January 2022

Saverio Bellizzi, Zaid AlResheidat, Hala Boukerdenna



Note: Open Access.


"Respondents (aged 50 +) with a smoking history and at least one smoking-related health condition were pooled from the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) from four waves from 2004 to 2013… Although women are less likely to smoke than men, they were more likely to smoke persistently. The effects of education and general TCPs [tobacco control policies] on persistent smoking were significant for women only. Compared to women with low levels of education, those with moderate education (odds ratio [OR] = .63; .49-.82) and high education (OR=.57; .34-.98) are less likely to be persistent smokers. TCPs are associated with a reduced risk of women's persistent smoking (OR = .70, .51-.95) and the association is stronger for those having less education."


Gender, Tobacco control policies, and persistent smoking among older adults: A longitudinal analysis of 11 European countries

Nicotine Tob Res. 2022 Jan 29;ntac023. Online ahead of print.

Manjing Gao, Chioun Lee, Soojin Park





Can states continue to set the agenda for Tobacco 21? Insights from U.S. News Coverage between 2012-2020


Is Illicit Cigarette Market a Threat to Tobacco Control in Ethiopia?



"This study examines associations between tobacco retailer density and neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics in the United States at four time points from 2000 to 2017. Although some associations weakened, there are sociodemographic disparities in tobacco retailer density over the study period. Research suggests that sociodemographic disparities in retailer density may contribute to inequities in smoking."


Sociodemographic Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density in the United States, 2000 - 2017

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac020.

Published: 25 January 2022

Sarah D Mills, Amanda Y Kong, Alexandria E Reimold, Chris D Baggett, Christopher A Wiesen, Shelley D Golden



"In the multivariable analyses [from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986], maternal smoking during pregnancy did not associate with the studied outcomes after adjusting for offspring smoking and other substance use at offspring age 15-16 years and parental psychiatric disorders. However, paternal smoking ≥10 cigarettes/day before pregnancy [hazard ratio (HR) = 5.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7-11.2, P < 0.001] and paternal psychiatric disorders (HR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.8, P = 0.028) associated with offspring SUD [substance use disorders] after adjustments."


Parental smoking and young adult offspring psychosis, depression and anxiety disorders and substance use disorder

Eur J Public Health. 2022 Jan 29;ckac004. Online ahead of print.

Marian Sarala, Antti Mustonen, Anni-Emilia Alakokkare, Caroline Salom, Jouko Miettunen, Solja Niemelä 



Note: Open Access.


"Maternal smoking during pregnancy was significantly associated with the risk of LBW [low birth weight] in offspring (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.80-1.98). Furthermore, an obvious dose-response relationship between the amount of cigarettes daily smoked in pregnancy and the risk of LBW in offspring was observed. The results of subgroup analyses indicated that the risk of maternal smoking on LBW was larger in more recently conducted studies (P = 0.020) and longer period of active smoking during pregnancy (P = 0.002)… The risk of maternal smoking on infant LBW seems to be increasing over time, and was higher with longer smoking duration throughout pregnancy and more cigarettes smoked daily."


Maternal smoking status during pregnancy and low birth weight in offspring: systematic review and meta-analysis of 55 cohort studies published from 1986 to 2020

World J Pediatr. 2022 Jan 28. Online ahead of print.

Hong-Kun Di, Yong Gan, Kai Lu, Chao Wang, Yi Zhu, Xin Meng, Wen-Qi Xia, Min-Zhi Xu, Jing Feng, Qing-Feng Tian, Yan He, Zhi-Qiang Nie, Jun-An Liu, Fu-Jian Song, Zu-Xun Lu



"In this cross-sectional study, persistent smoking was associated with worse audiometric hearing and speech-in-noise perception. Hearing measures among participants who quit smoking during the study period did not differ from those for never or former smokers, indicating that smoking cessation (as opposed to persistent smoking) may have benefits for hearing health."


Association of Cigarette Smoking Patterns Over 30 Years With Audiometric Hearing Impairment and Speech-in-Noise Perception

The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Published online January 27, 2022.

Emmanuel E. Garcia Morales, James Ting, Alden L. Gross, Joshua F. Betz, Kening Jiang, Simo Du, Melinda C. Power, Nicholas S. Reed, A. Richey Sharrett, Frank R. Lin, Jennifer A. Deal



"We use self-reported data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), cigarette taxes to instrument for changes in smoking, and survey completion to instrument for misreporting. Starting with the baseline two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimator common in the earlier observational literature, we obtain similar estimates suggesting quitting smoking substantially reduces BMI [Body Mass Index]. However, we find the results are sensitive to specification, functional form, and the presence of misreporting… Our preferred estimate suggests reduced smoking accounts for 6% of the concurrent rise in obesity."


Does Quitting Smoking Increase Obesity? Evidence From Accounting for Misreporting


ISSUE DATE January 2022

Rusty Tchernis, Keith F. Teltser & Arjun Teotia





Have Recreational Marijuana Laws Undermined Public Health Progress on Adult Tobacco Use?



"Medication sampling was the dominant strategy compared to standard care. Our intervention cost $75, yielding a discounted lifetime savings of $1065 in healthcare expenditures, and increased both discounted quality-adjusted life years and discounted life years by 0.01. One-way sensitivity analyses showed that medication sampling remained dominant in plausible ranges except when it failed to increase cessation relative to standard care… Conclusion: Medication sampling, an easily implementable, scalable and low-cost intervention to encourage smoking cessation, is cost saving and improves quality of life."


The Cost-Effectiveness of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Sampling in Primary Care: a Markov Cohort Simulation Model

J Gen Intern Med. 2022 Jan 28. Online ahead of print.

Brian Chen, Gerard A Silvestri, Jennifer Dahne, Kyueun Lee, Matthew J Carpenter https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11606-021-07335-x


"In this study, we identified smoker subgroups based on response accuracy during a Parametric Flanker Task (PFT) and then characterized distinct neuroimaging endophenotypes using a nicotine state manipulation… Unpacking underlying smoker heterogeneity with this 'dual (task and abstinence) stressor' approach revealed discrete smoker subgroups with differential attentional deficits to withdrawal that could be novel pharmacological/behavioral targets for therapeutic interventions to improve cessation outcomes."


Not all smokers are alike: the hidden cost of sustained attention during nicotine abstinence

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2022 Jan 28. Online ahead of print.

Harshawardhan U Deshpande, John R Fedota, Juan Castillo, Betty Jo Salmeron, Thomas J Ross, Elliot A Stein




Note: Open Access.


Physical and mental health outcomes associated with adolescent E-cigarette use

J Pediatr Nurs. 2022 Feb 1;64:1-17. Online ahead of print.

Jennifer A Livingston, Chia-Hui Chen, Misol Kwon, Eunhee Park



"More than 90% of the sample indicated that JUUL was at least moderately addictive, whereas less than one-quarter indicated that JUUL was as harmful or more harmful than smoking. Higher levels of perceived JUUL addictiveness were associated with more quit intentions, attempts, and importance. Higher levels of perceived JUUL harm compared with smoking were associated with more quit importance."


Intentions and Attempts to Quit JUUL E-Cigarette Use: The Role of Perceived Harm and Addiction

Prev Chronic Dis. 2022 Feb 3;19:E06.

Andréa L Hobkirk, Brianna Hoglen, Tianhong Sheng, Ava Kristich, Jessica M Yingst, Kenneth R Houser, Nicolle M Krebs, Sophia I Allen, Candace R Bordner, Craig Livelsberger, Jonathan Foulds




Note: Open Access.


"Sentiment analysis revealed that after the announcement of the New York State flavor policy, in both New York State and other states, the proportion of negative tweets on e-cigarettes increased from 34.07% (4531/13,299) to 44.58% (18,451/41,390) and from 32.48% (14,320/44,090) to 44.40% (64,262/144,734), respectively, while positive tweets decreased significantly from 39.03% (5191/13,299) to 32.86% (13,601/41,390) and from 42.78% (18,863/44,090) to 33.93% (49,105/144,734), respectively… Conclusions: Public attitudes toward e-cigarettes became more negative on Twitter after New York State announced the policy on flavored e-cigarettes. Twitter users in other states that did not have such a policy on flavored e-cigarettes paid close attention to the New York State flavor policy."


Public Reactions to the New York State Policy on Flavored Electronic Cigarettes on Twitter: Observational Study

JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2022 Feb 3;8(2):e25216.

Li Sun, Xinyi Lu, Zidian Xie, Dongmei Li




Note: Open Access.


"Three hundred and twelve trials (250 563 participants) were included… Adding multiple components that are commonly used in behavioural counselling suggested clinically relevant and statistically conclusive evidence of benefit. Components with the largest effects that could be combined, but rarely have been, were estimated to increase the odds of quitting between two and threefold… Conclusions: Among the components of behavioural support for smoking cessation, behavioural counselling and guaranteed financial incentives are associated with the greatest success."


Behavioural programmes for cigarette smoking cessation: investigating interactions between behavioural, motivational and delivery components in a systematic review and component network meta-analysis


First published: 05 January 2022

Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, José M. Ordóñez-Mena, Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, Thomas R. Fanshawe, Nicola Lindson, Suzanne C. Freeman, Alex J. Sutton, Annika Theodoulou, Paul Aveyard




Note: Open Access.


"Delayed quitters smoked their first cigarette of the day earlier, had more past quit attempts, had lower confidence in quitting successfully, were more likely female and more likely to use varenicline. One-year relapse rates were 53% for immediate quitters and 77% for delayed quitters (OR=2.83; 95%CI: [1.70-4.72]). In a multivariable regression adjusted for potential confounders delayed quitting remained significantly associated with relapse at one year (OR=2.41; 95%CI: [1.38-4.21]). Conclusion: Ex-smokers who do not achieve abstinence on their TQD [target quit date] are at a higher risk of relapse than those who do. The effect was not explained by baseline variables."


Are ‘delayed quitters’ more likely to relapse than smokers who quit on their target quit date? A retrospective analysis of clinical records

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac028.

Published: 31 January 2022

Benjamin Borchardt, Rudolf Schoberberger, Peter Hajek





Nicotine patch alters patterns of cigarette smoking-induced dopamine release: Patterns relate to biomarkers associated with treatment response


Growing evidence for a causal role for smoking in mental health


Novel nicotine concentration labels improve adolescents’ and young adults’ understanding of the nicotine strength of electronic nicotine delivery system products



Note: Nicotine patch and mental health papers Open Access.


"We found contrasting levels of awareness of Article 5.3 across government sectors, with extremely limited awareness in departments beyond health. The data also highlight competing ideas about conflict of interest, in which recognition of a fundamental conflict of interest with the tobacco industry is largely confined to health actors… Conclusion: The Ethiopian government’s recent achievements in tobacco control legislation require that policymakers are actively supported in reconciling perceived tensions and requirements for stakeholder consultation. Effective tobacco control governance would be further enhanced by enabling government agencies to more clearly identify which interactions with the tobacco industry are strictly necessary under Article 5.3 guideline recommendations."


‘They have a right to participate as a stakeholder’: Article 5.3 implementation and government interactions with the tobacco industry in Ethiopia

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 31 January 2022.

Selamawit Hirpa, Rob Ralston, Wakgari Deressa, Jeff Collin




Note: Open Access.


"The results of this study shows that FCTC [Framework Convention on Tobacco Control] ratification, which can be an important driver for more effective tobacco control, does not necessarily have a negative impact on the economy. Instead, FCTC ratification may be beneficial for both health and economic outcomes, as it provides comprehensive guidance for reducing smoking prevalence that take into account social and economic factors."


FCTC ratification, smoking prevalence, and GDP per capita: lessons for Indonesia and the rest of the world

Global Health. 2022 Feb 5;18(1):11.

Abdillah Ahsan, Rifai Afin, Nadira Amalia, Martha Hindriyani, Ardhini Risfa Jacinda, Elisabeth Kramer




Note: Open Access.


"Due to the dynamic expression of the cholinergic system throughout the lifespan, chronic and acute nicotine exposure differentially affect brain structure, function, and behavior in the perinatal period, adolescence, and adulthood. The patterns of expression and pharmacological and physiological properties of nAChRs [nicotinic acetylcholine receptors] are unique to the developmental period. Nicotine exposure during the perinatal period disrupts general growth, cardiovascular and lung function, the endocrine system, motor function, reward, and attention. Adolescent nicotine exposure enhances susceptibility to addiction, impulsivity, and mood disorders. While nicotine exposure during adulthood may not have the apparent adverse consequences on the brain seen in earlier critical developmental windows, the health risks associated with tobacco and nicotine use are equally destructive."


Unique effects of nicotine across the lifespan

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2022 Feb 2;173343. Online ahead of print.

Michelle Ren, Shahrdad Lotfipour, Frances Leslie



"Data from 161,233 ever smokers (12.8% with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed in 2020… Adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who smoked had greater age-adjusted past-year quit attempts (68.8% vs 64.3%) but lower recent successful cessation (4.5% vs 5.8%) and quit ratio (53.2% vs 63.9%) than those without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. After adjusting for covariates, adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who smoked had a significantly higher percentage of past-year quit attempts but similar recent successful cessation and a significantly lower lifetime quit ratio than their counterparts without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions: These findings suggest that individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who try to quit smoking may be less likely to succeed than those without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease."


Smoking Cessation Among U.S. Adult Smokers With and Without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 2018

Am J Prev Med. 2022 Feb 1;S0749-3797(22)00001-0. Online ahead of print.

Yong Liu, Kurt J Greenlund, Brenna VanFrank, Fang Xu, Hua Lu, Janet B Croft



"Compared with non-smoker-low CRF [cardiorespiratory fitness], smoker-low CRF was associated with an increased COPD [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] risk in multivariable analysis 9.79 (95% CI 5.61-17.08), with attenuated but persisting evidence of an association for smoker-high CRF and COPD risk 6.10 (95% CI 3.22-11.57). An additive interaction was found between smoking status and CRF (RERI = 6.99). Except for CRF and COPD risk, all associations persisted on accounting for mortality as a competing risk event. Despite a wealth of evidence on the ability of high CRF to offset the adverse effects of other risk factors, it appears high CRF levels have only modest attenuating effects on the very strong association between smoking and COPD risk."


Cardiorespiratory fitness does not offset the increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attributed to smoking: a cohort study

Eur J Epidemiol. 2022 Feb 5. Online ahead of print.

Setor K Kunutsor, Sae Young Jae, Timo H Mäkikallio, Jari A Laukkanen




Note: Open Access.


"Between Timepoints 2 and 3, abstinence rates decreased by 11%, and 40% of participants reported a smoking status change. Among those reporting a change and the highest general stress levels, newly abstinent participants had higher perceived risk of complications from COVID-19 related to smoking than those who relapsed during pandemic (mean (standard deviation): 14.2 (3.3) vs. 12.6 (3.8))… Implications: We observed an increase in smoking rates during the COVID-19 pandemic. In exploring how combinations of general stress levels, COVID-19 distress levels, and perceived risk of complications from COVID-19 related to smoking were associated with changes in smoking, we observed expected patterns of these factors among individuals who sustained abstinence or smoking."


Characterizing pandemic-related changes in smoking over time in a cohort of current and former smokers

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac033.

Published: 05 February 2022

Catherine S Nagawa, Mayuko Ito Fukunaga, Jamie M Faro, Feifan Liu, Ekaterina Anderson, Ariana Kamberi, Elizabeth A Orvek, Maryann Davis, Lori Pbert, Sarah L Cutrona, Thomas K Houston, Rajani S Sadasivam



Note: Open Access.


"The current COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in unexpected alterations in routine and changes in health behaviors. A quarter of all participants said they had changed their smoking habits, with an equal percentage saying they had increased or decreased their smoking."


Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on smoking behavior and beliefs among the American University of Beirut community

Tob Prev Cessat. 2022 Jan 24;8:02. eCollection 2022.

Yasmina Al Ghadban, Nathalie Zgheib, Maya Romani, Imad Bou Akl, Rihab Nasr



Note: Open Access.


"Smoking in pregnancy is a complex issue resulting from a combination of social, emotional, and physical factors. The findings from this study suggest that a combination of approaches should be made available to enable pregnant women who smoke to select the best options for their individual needs. Irrespective of the practical support offered, there is a need for informed, sensitive, individualised support system that women can identify with."


'I don't need you to criticise me, I need you to support me'. A qualitative study of women's experiences of and attitudes to smoking cessation during pregnancy

Women Birth. 2022 Jan 31;S1871-5192(22)00013-0. Online ahead of print.

Tomasina Stacey, Jayne Samples, Chelsea Leadley Lisa Akester, Azariah Jenney



"An approximately linear relationship between continuous ATE [accumulated tobacco exposure] and survival estimates was identified… Conclusion: Tobacco smoking (assessed as smoking status and ATE) was associated with inferior survival (OS [overall survival] and DFS [disease-free survival]) among patients with OSCC [oral squamous cell carcinoma]. Unfavorable long-term prognosis was significant for patients who continued smoking compared to patients with smoking cessation at diagnosis."


The impact of tobacco smoking on survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma: a population-based retrospective study

Acta Oncol. 2022 Feb 4;1-10. Online ahead of print.

Amanda Oester Andersen, Jakob Schmidt Jensen, Kathrine Kronberg Jakobsen, Helene Stampe, Kristoffer Juul Nielsen, Irene Wessel, Anders Christensen, Elo Andersen, Jeppe Friborg, Christian Grønhøj, Christian von Buchwald



Effectiveness of e-cigarettes as aids for smoking cessation: evidence from the PATH Study cohort, 2017–2019

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 07 February 2022

Ruifeng Chen, John P Pierce, Eric C Leas, Tarik Benmarhnia, David R Strong, Martha M White, Matthew Stone, Dennis R Trinidad, Sara B McMenamin, Karen Messer




Note: Open Access.


Related coverage:


Study: E-Cigs Are Not Helping People Quit Smoking


Study: Fewer successful quitters use e-cigarettes compared to other cessation aids


E-cigarettes were less effective than gum and other nicotine replacement aids, study says



"A wide range of ENDS [electronic nicotine delivery systems], including multiple types of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine, a heated tobacco product, and an ultrasonic vaping device devoid of heating coil, all impair FMD [flow-mediated dilation] after a single vaping session comparably to combusted cigarettes."


Comparable Impairment of Vascular Endothelial Function by a Wide Range of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Devices

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac019.

Published: 31 January 2022

Poonam Rao, Daniel D Han, Kelly Tan, Leila Mohammadi, Ronak Derakhshandeh, Mina Navabzadeh, Natasha Goyal, Matthew L Springer



"If we carry on as we are, we are unlikely to address this important scientific and public health question satisfactorily and may merely perpetuate disagreement by selective reporting of results that favour one direction or the other of a gateway effect.… Based on the current balance of evidence, using triangulated data from recent population-level cross-contextual comparisons, individual-level genetic analyses and modelling, we do believe, however, that causal claims about a strong gateway effect from e-cigarettes to smoking are unlikely to hold, while it remains too early to preclude other smaller or opposing effects."


Unpacking the gateway hypothesis of e-cigarette use: The need for triangulation of individual- and population-level data

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac035.

Published: 09 February 2022

Lion Shahab, Jamie Brown, Lies Boelen, Emma Beard, Robert West, Marcus R Munafò



Note: Open Access.


"When comparing the odds of reporting tobacco use at Wave 14 to Wave 13, no differences emerged (p > 0.05). However, when comparing tobacco use at Wave 15 to Wave 14, participants had 40% lower odds of reporting past 30-day cigarette use (p = 0.02) and 50% lower odds of reporting past 30-day e-cigarette use (p < 0.01). The current study provides initial evidence that young adults may have reduced their tobacco and nicotine use during the stay-at-home orders."


Decreases in smoking and vaping during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders among a cohort of young adults in the United States

Prev Med. 2022 Feb 8;106992. Online ahead of print.

Rachel Denlinger-Apte, Cynthia K Suerken, Jennifer Cornacchione Ross, Beth A Reboussin, John Spangler, Kimberly G Wagoner, Erin L Sutfin



Note: Open Access.


"Multivariable analyses found no significant association between follow-up e-cigarette use and 6-month cigarette abstinence. E-cigarette use at follow-up was higher in the Standard vs Intensive treatment group (p=0.003 and 0.001 at 3 and 6 mo, respectively). Smoking cessation and health concerns were primary reasons for using e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Among individuals who smoke recently diagnosed with cancer and enrolled in a smoking cessation intervention trial, e-cigarette use during trial participation was not associated with smoking abstinence."


Longitudinal Electronic Cigarette Use among Patients Recently Diagnosed with Cancer Enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Trial

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac031.

Published: 04 February 2022

Sara Kalkhoran, Joanna M Streck, Gina R Kruse, Nancy A Rigotti, Giselle K Perez, Susan Regan, Colin J Ponzani, Alona Muzikansky, Elyse R Park, Jamie S Ostroff





Multiple Tobacco Product Use Conceptual Framework: A 2021 Update on Evidence


Biomarkers of Exposure and Biomarkers of Potential Harm in Adult Smokers Who Switch to E-vapor Products Relative to Cigarette Smoking in a 24-week, Randomized, Clinical Trial



Note: Biomarkers paper Open Access.


"Puff Bars have increased in popularity as their product design evaded strict regulations imposed on alternate e-cigarette products, such as Juul. In addition, Puff Bars sweet and fruity flavors and marketing on social media have made their use pervasive among youth. Puff Bar use can lead to increased risk of e-cigarette product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) and potential exposure to carcinogens. Furthermore, the developmental risks of nicotine use during adolescence include negative effects on cognitive function and detriments to short-term memory."


Puff bars: a dangerous trend in adolescent disposable e-cigarette use

Curr Opin Pediatr. 2022 Feb 11. Online ahead of print.

Hannah Rosenthal, Nelson Chow, Setu Mehta, Duy Pham, Ruth Milanaik



"PMI [Philip Morris International] uses similar tactics to promote IQOS at POS [point-of-sale] as they previously used for combustible products, including direct promotional activities with retailers, and circumvented legislation by using special displays and signage. Governments need to ban these measures and support retailers with clear practical guidance regarding the implementation of marketing restrictions at POS."


IQOS marketing strategies at point-of-sales: a cross-sectional survey with retailers

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 09 February 2022.

Yael Bar-Zeev, Carla J Berg, Amal Khayat, Katelyn F Romm, Chritina N Wysota, Lorien C Abroms, Daniel Elbaz, Hagai Levine



"Our analysis identifies common barriers to coordination across diverse geographical contexts and varying approaches to implementation. They highlight broadly shared experiences of limited understanding and engagement beyond health agencies; restricted responsibility and uncertainty amid conflicting mandates; tensions with wider governance practices and norms; limited capacity and authority of coordination mechanisms; and obstacles to vertical coordination across local, state and national governments."


Advancing whole-of-government approaches to tobacco control: Article 5.3 and the challenge of policy coordination in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India and Uganda

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 11 February 2022.

Rachel Ann Barry, S M Abdullah, Aastha Chugh, Selamawit Hirpa, Praveen Kumar, Denis Male, Rob Ralston, Tracey Wagner-Rizvi, Jeff Collin





Understanding the dynamics of notification and implementation of Article 5.3 across India’s states and union territories


Promoting convergence and closing gaps using affordability-based minimum taxes: an illustration using the European Union Tobacco Tax Directive



Note: Open Access.


"This study is the first to assess the potential of a botanical biofilter with the species Spathiphyllum wallisii (Peace Lily) for the removal of cigarette-derived VOCs [volatile organic compounds] and all size fractions of PM [particulate matter]. Single pass removal efficiencies of 43.26% for total VOCs and 34.37% for total suspended particles were achieved. The botanical biofilter reduced the concentrations of a range of harmful ETS [environmental tobacco smoke] chemicals including nicotine, limonene, and toluene. Evaluation of the re-emission of ETS constituents filtered by the botanical biofilter revealed no particle resuspension or off gassing. The results demonstrate the potential of botanical biofilters to reduce public ETS exposure, although further research is needed to improve upon and ensure the efficiency of these systems for practical applications."


The botanical biofiltration of volatile organic compounds and particulate matter derived from cigarette smoke

Chemosphere. 2022 Feb 9;133942. Online ahead of print.

Angela L Morgan, Fraser R Torpy, Peter J Irga, Robert Fleck, Raissa L Gill, Thomas Pettit



"The varenicline group (n = 499) had significantly higher 7-day PPA (30.3%) compared to the bupropion group (n = 465; 19.6%) at end of treatment (OR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.49–2.90, p < 0.001). Seven-day PPA was also higher for the varenicline group at 4-weeks (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.23–2.40 p = 0.0001), and 8-weeks follow-up (OR=1.95, 95% CI: 1.43–2.67 p < 0.0001), but not at post-treatment follow-up… Conclusions: This internet-based pharmacotherapy intervention was a feasible and effective method of treatment delivery for smoking cessation."


Evaluating the effectiveness of bupropion and varenicline for smoking cessation using an internet-based delivery system: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial (MATCH study)

Drug and Alcohol Dependence

Available online 9 February 2022, 109312

Helena Zhang, Tara Mansoursadeghi-Gilan, Sarwar Hussain, Scott Veldhuizen, Bernard Le Foll, Peter Selby, Laurie Zawertailo



Related PR:


Smoking cessation drugs prescribed over the internet are as safe and effective as in-person treatment



"Although this cross-sectional study examined a convenience sample from 1 children’s hospital, the high prevalence of THS [thirdhand smoke] exposure among all children younger than 12 years is concerning, because there is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke toxicants. While parents’ efforts to protect their children from tobacco smoke pollutants did not fully prevent exposure, they reduced the magnitude of exposure by a mean of 86%. The association between income and hand nicotine among protected and unprotected children, independent of other variables, points to a troubling potential role of income-related disparities, such as housing type and quality, in THS exposure."


Prevalence and Income-Related Disparities in Thirdhand Smoke Exposure to Children

JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(2):e2147184.

February 7, 2022

Georg E. Matt, Ashley L. Merianos, Penelope J. E. Quintana, Eunha Hoh, Nathan G. Dodder, E. Melinda Mahabee-Gittens



Note: Open Access.


Related coverage:


Almost all kids have tobacco on their hands, even in non-smoking homes



"After adjustment for potential confounders, the inverse association between smoking during pregnancy and children's IQ [intelligence quotient] remained significant in both cohorts. Offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy had an average of 1.32 less IQ points (95%CI: -2.23, -0.242) in the 1982 cohort, and an average of 1.66 less IQ points (95%CI: -2.42, -0.90) in the 1993 cohort. Neither cohort showed association with paternal smoking (negative controls) after adjustment… The inverse association between maternal smoking and IQ and the lack of association with paternal smoking reinforces our findings of a negative association between exposure and outcome."


Maternal smoking during pregnancy and intelligence quotient of offspring aged 18 and 30 years: Evidence from two birth cohorts in southern Brazil

Prev Med. 2022 Feb 9;106983. Online ahead of print.

Mariana Lima Corrêa, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro da Silva, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Bernardo L Horta, Helen Gonçalves, Luciana Anselmi, Fernando Barros, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes



"Nicotine administration normalized DMN [default mode network] hyperconnectivity in schizophrenia. We here provide direct evidence that the biological basis of nicotine dependence is different in schizophrenia and in non-schizophrenia populations. Our results suggest the high prevalence of nicotine use in schizophrenia may be an attempt to correct a network deficit known to interfere with cognition."


Evidence for Schizophrenia-Specific Pathophysiology of Nicotine Dependence

Front Psychiatry. 2022 Jan 27;13:804055. eCollection 2022.

Heather Burrell Ward, Adam Beermann, Uzma Nawaz, Mark A Halko, Amy C Janes, Lauren V Moran, Roscoe O Brady Jr



Note: Open Access.



Synthetic Cooling Agents in US-marketed E-cigarette Refill Liquids and Popular Disposable Ecigarettes: Chemical Analysis and Risk Assessment

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac046.

Published: 15 February 2022

Sairam V Jabba, Hanno C Erythropel, Deyri Garcia Torres, Lauren A Delgado, Jackson G Woodrow, Paul T Anastas, Julie B Zimmerman, Sven-Eric Jordt





Bridging: Accelerating Regulatory Acceptance of Reduced-Risk Tobacco and Nicotine Products



Note: Reduced-risk product paper Open Access.


"Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) product form matters. Similarity to combustible cigarettes influences health risk perceptions, and, in turn, there are effects on willingness to try the product. There are differences in mediation effects across current vapers and non-vapers. These results contribute to understanding reasons why the public health community should monitor and consider how manipulations in product form can affect and reduce health risk perceptions."


An Examination Perceptions of Similarity to Cigarettes, Health Risk Perceptions, and Willingness to Try Across Nicotine Vaping Products

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac047.

Published: 16 February 2022

Christopher Berry, Scot Burton





Is e-cigarette use associated with persistence or discontinuation of combustible cigarettes? A 24-month longitudinal investigation in young adult binge drinkers



"Our findings indicate that risk perceptions of exacerbated threats may reduce e-cigarette use directly, and also indirectly through shifting certain types of motivations for vaping. Beyond elucidating the relational dynamics between vaping psychology and health risks, these results also indicate health professionals may leverage the pandemic to promote nicotine cessation or reduced use."


Vaping in a Time of Pandemics: Risk Perception and Motivations for Electronic Cigarette Use

Nicotine Tob Res. 2022 Feb 19;ntac050. Online ahead of print.

Xiaozhao Yousef Yang, Brian C Kelly, Mark Pawson, Michael Vuolo



"In this comprehensive review, we discuss the diverse spectrum of vaping exposures, epidemiological and clinical reports, and experimental findings to provide a better understanding of EVALI [E-cigarette, or Vaping Product-Use Associated Lung Injury] and the adverse health effects of chronic e-cigarette exposure."


Vaping and Lung Inflammation and Injury

Annual Review of Physiology

Vol. 84:611-629 (Volume publication date February 2022)

First published as a Review in Advance on November 1, 2021

Jin-Ah Park, Laura E. Crotty Alexander, and David C. Christiani



Related PR:


Research roundup: E-cigs aren’t safe



"Statewide restrictions on non-tobacco-flavored e-cigarette sales were associated with the following reductions in mean 4-week total e-cigarette sales in intervention states compared with control states from October 2019 to December 2020: 30.65% (95% CI, 24.08%-36.66%) in New York, 31.26% (95% CI, 11.94%-46.34%) in Rhode Island, and 25.01% (95% CI, 18.43%-31.05%) in Washington. In Massachusetts, the comprehensive sales prohibition of all e-cigarette products was associated with a 94.38% (95% CI, 93.37%-95.23%) reduction in 4-week sales compared with control states… These findings suggest that not all e-cigarette users who purchased non-tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes switched to purchasing tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes after policy implementation."


Evaluation of Statewide Restrictions on Flavored e-Cigarette Sales in the US From 2014 to 2020

JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Feb 1;5(2):e2147813.

Fatma Romeh M Ali, Donna Vallone, Elizabeth L Seaman, Jamie Cordova, Megan C Diaz, Michael A Tynan, Katrina F Trivers, Brian A King



Note: Open Access.


"In this sample of adult smokers, all evaluated JUUL and IQOS products delivered less nicotine than UB [usual brand] cigarettes. IQOS delivered more nicotine than JUUL2 prototype 18 mg/mL and JUUL 59 mg/mL, but JUUL products were generally rated as more satisfying and more effective at reducing craving than IQOS—the JUUL2 prototype 18 mg/mL and JUUL 59 mg/mL were also less aversive than IQOS. Use of JUUL 59 mg/mL and JUUL2 prototype 18 mg/mL was well tolerated under both use conditions, whereas the JUUL2 prototype 40 mg/mL generated some aversive responses. JUUL2 prototype 18 mg/mL may provide a basis for future ENDS [electronic nicotine delivery systems] products that can facilitate increased switching among adult smokers."


Pharmacokinetic and subjective assessment of prototype JUUL2 electronic nicotine delivery system in two nicotine concentrations, JUUL system, IQOS, and combustible cigarette

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2022 Feb 20. Online ahead of print.

Nicholas I Goldenson, Erik M Augustson, Joey Chen, Saul Shiffman


This study was funded by Juul Labs, Inc.

Conflict of interest

Authors NIG, EMA and JC are full-time employees of Juul Labs, Inc.

SS is a senior advisor to Pinney Associates, Inc. Pinney Associates provides consulting services on tobacco harm reduction on an exclusive basis to Juul Labs, Inc.




Note: Open Access vaping industry research.


"Compared with never smokers, people currently smoking were at lower risk of COVID-19 hospitalization, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 0.64 (95% confidence intervals 0.60 to 0.69) for <10 cigarettes/day, 0.49 (0.41 to 0.59) for 10-19 cigarettes/day, and 0.61 (0.49 to 0.74) for ≥20 cigarettes/day. For ICU [Intensive Care Unit] admission, the corresponding HRs were 0.31 (0.24 to 0.40), 0.15 (0.06 to 0.36), and 0.35 (0.17 to 0.74) and death were: 0.79 (0.70 to 0.89), 0.66 (0.48 to 0.90), and 0.77 (0.54 to 1.09) respectively. Former smokers were at higher risk of severe COVID-19: HRs: 1.07 (1.03 to 1.11) for hospitalization, 1.17 (1.04 to 1.31) for ICU admission, and 1.17 (1.10 to 1.24) for death. All-cause mortality was higher for current smoking than never smoking, HR 1.42 (1.36 to 1.48)… Conclusions: Current smoking was associated with a reduced risk of severe COVID-19 but the association with e-cigarette use was unclear."


Association between smoking, e-cigarette use and severe COVID-19: a cohort study

Int J Epidemiol. 2022 Feb 18;dyac028. Online ahead of print.

Min Gao, Paul Aveyard, Nicola Lindson, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Peter Watkinson, Duncan Young, Carol Coupland, Ashley K Clift, David Harrison, Doug Gould, Ian D Pavord, Margaret Smith, Julia Hippisley-Cox 



Note: Open Access.


"Overall, 24.0% of US smokers last purchased cigarettes by the carton in early 2018; this increased to 28.8% in early 2020 (p = 0.007). Average daily cigarette consumption and the percentage of smokers reporting that smoking was not allowed inside their homes did not differ between 2018 and 2020 (p = 0.92 and p = 0.054, respectively). Overall, these findings suggest that COVID-19 mitigation measures implemented in the spring of 2020 had limited impact on the smoking behavior of US adult smokers."


Was COVID-19 associated with increased cigarette purchasing, consumption, and smoking at home among US smokers in early 2020? Findings from the US arm of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey

Addict Behav. 2022 Feb 6;129:107276. Online ahead of print.

Pete Driezen, Karin A Kasza, Shannon Gravely, Mary E Thompson, Geoffrey T Fong, K Michael Cummings, Andrew Hyland



Note: Open Access.


"Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed that combined risk messages elicited higher perceived severity of smoking-related disease than control messages. Similarly, the combined risk condition resulted in greater intentions to quit smoking in the next month (vs. COVID-19 risk condition) and intentions to reduce smoking in the next 6 months (vs. smoking risk and control; ps < .05). Multivariate logistic regression found that exposure to the combined risk messages (vs. control as referent) was associated with higher odds of mask-wearing intentions in the next 2 weeks (AOR = 1.97)."


Examining reactions to smoking and COVID-19 risk messages: An experimental study with people who smoke

Int J Drug Policy. 2022 Jan 31;102:103607. Online ahead of print.

Zachary B Massey, Hue Trong Duong, Victoria Churchill, Lucy Popova



"During the 15 years since the FCTC [Framework Convention on Tobacco Control] came into force in China, some progress has been made towards fulfilling the obligations. However, there are still big gaps in FCTC implementation. The root causes of these gaps are obstacles from the tobacco industry and the government’s ambiguous attitudes toward the tobacco economy… The prevalence of smoking among people 15 years and older in China was 26.6% in 2018 - almost unchanged from 2010. Healthy China 2030 set a smoking prevalence target of 20% by 2030. However, the target will be challenging to achieve without removing obstacles from the tobacco industry."


Current Progress and Challenges to Tobacco Control in China

China CDC Wkly. 2022 Feb 11;4(6):101-105.

Dong Sun, Yuanjie Pang, Jun Lyu, Liming Li




Note: Open Access.


"In 2010-2018, the overall prevalence of tobacco use, daily SHS [secondhand smoke] exposure at home and household solid fuel use among women in 57 LMICs [low- and middle-income countries] was 3.2% (95 %CI = 3.1-3.3), 23.0% (22.8-23.2), and 65.6% (65.3-65.9), respectively. The prevalence of tobacco use was lower among pregnant women than non-pregnant women (2.1% vs. 3.3%), but the prevalence of daily SHS exposure at home (24.4% vs. 22.8%) and household solid fuel use (69.1% vs. 65.3%) was higher among pregnant women than non-pregnant women. About 16% of the women presented two or three simultaneous risk factors. Between 2000 and 2018, the prevalence of tobacco use decreased in 24 (64.9%) of 37 countries, and the prevalence of household solid fuel use decreased in 20 (50.0%) of 40 countries."


Prevalence and trends in tobacco use, secondhand smoke exposure at home and household solid fuel use among women in 57 low- and middle-income countries, 2000-2018

Environ Int. 2022 Feb 15;161:107142. Online ahead of print.

Lili Yang, Han Wu, Min Zhao, Costan G Magnussen, Bo Xi



Note: Open Access.


"Tobacco product coupon receipt and redemption are often more prevalent among price-sensitive subpopulations. Most concerning, our results suggest coupon receipt may be associated with higher tobacco initiation and lower tobacco cessation. Couponing thereby increases the toll of tobacco use and could prove to be a viable public health policy intervention point."


Tobacco Couponing: A Systematic Review of Exposures and Effects on Tobacco Initiation and Cessation Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac037.

Published: 10 February 2022

Alex C Liber, Luz María Sánchez-Romero, Christopher J Cadham, Zhe Yuan, Yameng Li, Hayoung Oh, Steven Cook, Kenneth E Warner,Lisa Henriksen, Ritesh Mistry, Rafael Meza, Nancy L Fleischer, David T Levy





Design of financial incentive programmes for smoking cessation: A discrete choice experiment



"The majority of participants reported making a quit attempt (70%) and using NRT [nicotine replacement therapy] (84%). Having an encounter with staff in the past week was associated with a 40% reduction in weekly consumption (Incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.61, 95% CI 0.57-0.67) and using medications in the past week was associated with a 23% reduction in weekly consumption (IRR 0.78, 95% CI 0.75-0.81). Using medications in the past week increased the odds of a quit attempt 2.89 times compared to not using medications (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.89, 95% CI 1.45-5.77). "


A community-based tobacco cessation program for individuals experiencing homelessness

Addict Behav. 2022 Feb 16;129:107282. Online ahead of print.

Marlena Hartman-Filson, Jennifer Chen, Priscella Lee, Megan Phan, Dorie E Apollonio, Lisa Kroon, Fiona Donald, Maya Vijayaraghavan



"Based on the available data, nicotine and NRT [nicotine replacement therapy] should ideally be avoided prior to MPI [myocardial perfusion imaging]. The specific time frame in which they would be stopped before conducting MPI differs based on the pharmacokinetics of each product."


Nicotine and Nicotine Replacement Therapy Use During Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

Fed Pract. 2022 Jan;39(1):23-27. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Joanna Longueira, Emiliya Khazan, Floyd Burke



"This single-center study suggests that although tobacco use cessation counseling and interventions were not associated with a decrease in CVEs [cardiovascular events], evidence-based interventions for tobacco use were under utilized in this high cardiac risk population. These findings underscore missed opportunities for transplant practitioners to provide tobacco use cessation interventions to LTRs [liver transplant recipients], which potentially could reduce CVEs."


Poor Practitioner Adherence to Clinical Tobacco Use Guidelines in Liver Transplant Recipients

Transplant Direct. 2022 Jan 26;8(2):e1288. eCollection 2022 Feb.

Claire Harrington, Megan Kosirog, Patrick Campbell, Dyanna Gregory, Amna Daud, Josh Levitsky, Jane L Holl, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Lisa B VanWagner



Note: Open Access.


Developing a theoretical marketing framework to analyse JUUL and compatible e-cigarette product promotion on Instagram

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 21 February 2022.

Ganna Kostygina, Hy Tran, Lauren Czaplicki, Siobhan N Perks, Donna Vallone, Sherry L Emery, Elizabeth C Hair






Cultural appropriation on Marlboro packs in Mexico: ofrenda symbolism a cruel irony




Note: Open Access.


"It is apparent from this study that e-cig use promotes a unique periodontal microbiome, one that contains distinctive features yet shares similarities with those of both conventional cigarette users and nonsmokers. The duration of e-cig use is a strong driver of subgingival microbiome composition over flavoring additions or nicotine concentration, indicating that basal e-cig components exert specific selection pressures on the SGP [subgingival plaque] microbial community."


Electronic Cigarette Use Promotes a Unique Periodontal Microbiome


22 February 2022

Scott C. Thomas, Fangxi Xu, Smruti Pushalkar, Ziyan Lin, Nirali Thakor, Mridula Vardhan, Zia Flaminio, , Alireza Khodadadi-Jamayran, Rebeca Vasconcelos, Adenike Akapo, Erica Queiroz, Maria Bederoff, Malvin N. Janal, Yuqi Guo, Deanna Aguallo, Terry Gordon, Patricia M. Corby, Angela R. Kamer, Xin Li, Deepak Saxena




Note: Open Access.


Related PR:


Evidence grows for vaping's role in gum disease



"This is the first study to examine the possible mediators between cigarette cessation intention and e-cigarette use in a Chinese smoking population. The findings revealed that high socioeconomic status, particularly higher education level, was a major mediating factor."


The characteristics and patterns of e-cigarette use and its association with cigarette cessation intention in a Chinese smoking population: A mediation analysis

Tob Induc Dis. 2022 Feb 11;20:16. eCollection 2022.

Hao-Xiang Lin, Yan Zhang, Mei-Jun Chen, Yun-Ting Zheng, Qing-Ping Yun, Lan-Chao Zhang, Wan-Tong Zhang, Bao-Chen Zhu, Zhao Liu






Factors related to the success of smoking cessation: A retrospective cohort study in Korea




Note: Open Access.


"We extracted a set of sample tweets during an outbreak of e-cigarette or vaping-related lung injury (EVALI) in 2019 and created an annotated corpus to train and evaluate these models... Our study findings provide informative guidelines and practical implications for the automated detection of themed social media data for public opinions and health surveillance purposes."


Automated Detection of Vaping-Related Tweets on Twitter During the 2019 EVALI Outbreak Using Machine Learning Classification

Front Big Data. 2022 Feb 10;5:770585. eCollection 2022.

Yang Ren, Dezhi Wu, Avineet Singh, Erin Kasson, Ming Huang, Patricia Cavazos-Rehg



Note: Open Access.


"The mean effect size of attempts to mitigate vaping misinformation was positive but not statistically significant (d = 0.383, 95% CI [-0.029, 0.796], p = .061, k = 5) with lack of evidence for publication bias. Given limited studies included, we were unable to determine factors affecting the efficacy of interventions. The limited focus on non-US studies and youth populations is concerning given the popularity of vaping in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs) and among youth."


Interventions to Mitigate Vaping Misinformation: A Meta-Analysis

J Health Commun. 2022 Feb 27;1-9. Online ahead of print.

Kamila Janmohamed, Nathan Walter, Natalie Sangngam, Sam Hampsher, Kate Nyhan, Munmun de Choudhury, Navin Kumar



"Smoking increased the risk of COVID-19 compared with population controls, for overall COVID-19 (odds ratio (OR) 1.19 per standard deviation (SD) of lifetime smoking index, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11 to 1.27), hospitalized COVID-19 (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.97) or severe COVID-19 (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.98), with directionally consistent effects from sensitivity analyses. Lung function and COPD liability did not appear to mediate these associations."


Association of smoking, lung function, and COPD in COVID-19 risk: A 2 step Mendelian randomization study

Addiction. 2022 Feb 27. Online ahead of print.

S L Au Yeung, A M Li, B He, K O Kwok, C M Schooling



"We analyzed data from 4 waves (2013-2018) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study comprising 10,692 respondents (adolescents=5,428 and young adults=5,264)… Conclusions: Results indicate a high prevalence of WPT [waterpipe tobacco] initiation and progression among adolescents and young adults over time, with minority racial/ethnic groups being at greater risk for both. WPT-specific risk communication interventions (e.g., educational campaigns and health warning labels) are warranted to limit WPT smoking among young people."


Prevalence and predictors of waterpipe smoking initiation and progression among adolescents and young adults in waves 1-4 (2013-18) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac051.

Published: 23 February 2022

Prem Gautam, Eva Sharma, Mohammad Ebrahimi Kalan, Wei Li, Kenneth D Ward, Matthew T Sutherland, Miguel Angel Cano, Tan Li, Wasim Maziak





“Scary and effective, definitely pushes me to quit smoking”: Developing waterpipe pictorial health warnings targeting young adults in Lebanon


Full-scale randomized trial comparing Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) telephone-delivered coaching with standard telephone-delivered coaching among Medicare/uninsured quitline callers



"While the meta-analysis of RCTs [randomized controlled trials] did not show a significant association between snus use and smoking cessation (risk ratio (RR)=1.33, 95% CI 0.71 to 2.47 and RR=0.62, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.41), the results of the meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies (RR=1.38, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.82, p=0.022) and cross-sectional studies (OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.72, p=0.001) indicated that use of snus was associated with an increased likelihood of quitting or having quit smoking."


Efficacy of smokeless tobacco for smoking cessation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 23 February 2022.

Daniel Stjepanović, Preeti Phartiyal, Janni Leung, Carmen C W Lim, Tianze Sun, Jack Yiu Chak Chung, Coral E Gartner, Wayne D Hall, Gary C K Chan





Nicotine pouch product awareness, interest and ever use among US adults who smoke, 2021



"Smokers reported greater preference to try NG [Nicotine gum] (63.8%) compared with CS [Camel Snus] (17.4%) or neither (18.8%), whereas majority of nonsmokers preferred neither product (64.3%) (p < 0.01). Of those offered to sample the products, 78.3% daily smokers and 68.4% non-daily smokers opted to sample. When asked about intentions to try, a greater proportion of smokers stated a preference to try NG over CS, as did the small number of nonsmokers who expressed a preference. Conclusion: Intentions to try CS were low despite different levels of exposure to product, and this low product appeal and interest in use may translate to limited potential of CS to serve as a reduced harm product for smokers."


Intention to purchase alternative tobacco products as a function of smoking status and responses to advertising, packaging, and sensory experiences

Addict Behav. 2022 Feb 22;130:107291. Online ahead of print.

Akshika Sharma, Kristie M June, Kaila J Norton, Brian Fix, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Vaughan W Rees, Richard J O'Connor





Affective mechanisms of stress-induced cigarette craving: Considerations of gender and race/ethnicity



"Sociodemographic characteristics such as sex, ethnicity, and education level were significantly associated with awareness of cigarette health warnings. Among cigarette smokers aware of health warnings, no sociodemographic differences in thinking about quitting were found. Tobacco control campaigns may need to target people of ethnicities with the highest smoking prevalence in the country."


Demographic characteristics associated with awareness of cigarette health warnings and thinking about quitting among current adult cigarette smokers in Zambia, 2017

Tob Prev Cessat. 2022 Feb 11;8:05. eCollection 2022.

Masauso M Phiri, April D Summers, Alissa C Kress, Isabel Garcia de Quevedo, Ralph Caraballo, Evelyn Twentyman




Note: Open Access.


"Attempts to quit smoking were higher among adolescent smokers who had seen graphic health warning labels compared to those who had not {boys, odds ratio (OR) = 1.72 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.48-2.00]; girls, OR = 1.74 (95% CI, 1.33-2.28)}. The correlation was greater for adolescents who thought about the harm of smoking [boys, OR = 1.86 (95% CI, 1.60-2.16); girls, OR = 1.85 (95% CI, 1.41-2.43)] and the willingness to quit [boys, OR = 2.03 (95% CI, 1.74-2.36); girls, OR = 2.04 (95% CI, 1.55-2.68)] after seeing graphic health warning labels. Our findings indicate that graphic health warning labels on cigarette packs have the potential to lower smoking intentions of adolescents."


Association Between Graphic Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs and Smoking Cessation Attempts in Korean Adolescent Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Study

Front Public Health. 2022 Feb 11;10:789707. eCollection 2022.

Hye Jin Joo, Jae Hong Joo, Seung Hoon Kim, Eun-Cheol Park, Sung-In Jang



Note: Open Access.


"All 4 constructs of outcome expectancies (negative consequences, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and appetite/weight control) were associated with lower abstinence self-efficacy and desire to quit tobacco smoking… Conclusion: Cognitive mechanisms that may explain the desire to quit tobacco smoking among Saudi women were identified. Although future longitudinal studies are required to determine relationships prospectively, targeted interventions that correct tobacco smoking outcome expectancies and boost abstinence self-efficacy skills may reduce tobacco smoking among Saudi women."


Effects of Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancies of Tobacco Smoking on the Desire to Quit Among Saudi Women: A Cross-Sectional Mediation Analysis

Tob Use Insights. 2022 Feb 21;15:1179173X221075581. eCollection 2022.

Abdullah M Alanazi, Shahad F Almutairi, Alanoud A Alsarami, Fay J Alanazi, Lama H Alqahtani, Tareq F Alotaibi, Saleh S Algarni, Sarah S Monshi, Taha T Ismaeil




Note: Open Access.


"This preliminary high-level modelling suggests that mandated denicotinisation has a plausible chance of achieving the New Zealand Government’s Smokefree 2025 goal. The probability of success would increase if supplemented with interventions such as mass-media campaigns offering Quitline support (especially if predominantly designed for a Māori audience). Nevertheless, there is much uncertainty with these results and more sophisticated modelling is forthcoming."


Modelling the impacts of tobacco denicotinisation on achieving the Smokefree 2025 goal in Aotearoa New Zealand

New Zealand Medical Journal

Vol 135 1548: 21 January 2022

Nick Wilson, Janet Hoek, Nhung Nghiem, Jennifer Summers, Leah Grout, Richard Edwards



"Of the total 9280 pregnant Japanese women, 532 (5.7%) had smoked before pregnancy. Of these, 272 (51.5%) quitted smoking after being diagnosed with pregnancy, while 258 (49.5%) continued to smoke during pregnancy and were diagnosed with habitual smoking during pregnancy. There was no significant relation between habitual smoking at pre-pregnancy and the perinatal adverse outcomes. However, habitual smoking during pregnancy was associated with the adverse perinatal outcomes such as the increased incidence of placental abruption (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.38, p = 0.04) and light-for-gestational-age neonate (adjusted OR 1.72, p = 0.03) on multiple logistic regression analyses."


Habitual Smoking and Perinatal Outcomes in Japan

Cureus. 2022 Feb 21;14(2):e22426. eCollection 2022 Feb.

Shunji Suzuki




Note: Open Access after free registration.


"Smoker's paradox extends to long-term outcome in patients with stable CAD [coronary artery disease] undergoing PCI [percutaneous coronary intervention], which is partially explained by differences in baseline characteristics. However, smoking strongly predicted all-cause mortality and repeated PCI procedures in patients with stable CAD undergoing PCI. "


Correlation Between Smoking Paradox and Heart Rhythm Outcomes in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease Receiving Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Front Cardiovasc Med. 2022 Feb 11;9:803650. eCollection 2022.

Han-Ping Wu, Sheng-Ling Jan, Shih-Lin Chang, Chia-Chen Huang, Mao-Jen Lin



Note: Open Access.




Rassegna Stampa Scientifica Marzo 2022





Thirty years: mourning, celebration and what remains to be done

Tobacco Control 2022;31:121-122.

Online issue publication March 03, 2022

Ruth E Malone




Note: Open Access. The 30th Anniversary issue of the journal Tobacco Control (V.31:2) features reports newly available online and all are Open Access. A collection of cartoons I assembled on smoking and health issues and the tobacco industry appears here and, if no technical gremlins have removed it, the Casablanca-themed secondhand smoke cartoon should appear at the top of this bulletin.


"We criticise the companies and their spokespeople—but the key decision-makers escape largely unnoticed and unscathed. It is surely time to bring tobacco company board members more directly into the public arena, and confront them with the personal responsibility they share and bear for millions of deaths… [S]hining a light on the companies’ boards will help identify the true vectors; it will cause well-earned discomfort for the people whose decisions cause so much harm; it will counter the tobacco industry’s new charm offensives; and it will provide yet further rationale for young people and others to steer clear of this evil industry’s products."



Exposing the vectors

Tobacco Control 2022;31:383.

Online issue publication March 03, 2022

Mike Daube




Note: Open Access.


"The 2019 WHO [World Health Organization] report on the global tobacco epidemic reported that only 14% of the world’s population live in countries with sufficiently high tobacco taxes. Simple tax structure and frequent above-inflation increases in specific excise taxes are crucial tobacco control measures for any jurisdiction and need to be pursued without delay. Price caps are not a panacea that all countries could readily adopt, but their potential for significant impact suggests they could be an option for countries that already have high tobacco taxes and which are looking to do more."


Where to next for countries with high tobacco taxes? The potential for greater control of tobacco pricing through licensing regulation

Tobacco Control 2022;31:235-240.

Online issue publication March 03, 2022

Michelle Scollo, J Robert Branston




Note: Open Access.


Related coverage & PR:


Introduce price cap on cigarettes to reduce smoking – study


Introduce price cap on cigarettes to reduce smoking, new study finds



'"The tobacco industry is once again infiltrating scientific spaces and presenting a direct threat to the vital work of unbiased tobacco control scientists. With the popular introduction of e-cigarettes and other new nicotine products, the tobacco industry has remade itself into a self-proclaimed concerned corporate entity—and one that will go to great lengths to prop up their new products while opposing credible scientific findings… By appropriating the language of harm reduction, the tobacco industry cynically claims to care about users’ health. But an industry whose financial success depends on the continuous generation of profits will never be in a position to authentically support the elimination of the disease and death caused by tobacco."


The Tobacco Industry’s Renewed Assault on Science: A Call for a United Public Health Response

American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) March 2022

Published Online: February 23, 2022

Jodie Briggs, and Donna Vallone




Note: Open Access.


"For smokeless tobacco and oral nicotine products, higher pH may enhance nicotine satisfaction, but also increase abuse liability, particularly for youth. For e-cigarettes, lower pH and higher nicotine concentrations may mean less exposure to thermally generated toxicants and benefit smokers who want to switch, but may enhance abuse liability among youth… A regulatory challenge to the FDA [Food & Drug Administration]  is balancing the potential of non-combusted tobacco products to promote the tobacco endgame in adult cigarette smokers vs. possible harm to youth. Essential in such regulation is a consideration of the impact of pH on the clinical pharmacology of nicotine in various tobacco products."


The Central Role of pH in the Clinical Pharmacology of Nicotine: Implications for Abuse Liability, Cigarette Harm Reduction and FDA Regulation

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2022 Feb 27. Online ahead of print.

Neal L Benowitz



"Most participants preferred capsule cigarettes (single capsule=47.5%; double capsule=12.9%). Flavor capsule users reported that their preferred varieties mostly tasted like menthol/mint (59% of single capsule users and 23% of double capsule users), cucumber (12% and 27%, respectively) or berries (10% and 22%, respectively)… Conclusions: The high prevalence of capsule use and widespread perceptions of the benefits of capsules over traditional cigarettes may help explain why tobacco control policies have not reduced smoking prevalence in Mexico."


Why smoke flavor capsule cigarettes? Preferences and perceptions among adult smokers in Mexico

Nicotine Tob Res. 2022 Mar 4;ntac057. Online ahead of print.

Adebusola Ogunnaike, Katia Gallegos Carrillo, Inti Barrientos-Gutierrez, Edna Arillo Santillán, Yoo Jin Cho, James F Thrasher



"The prevalence of prediabetes among current E-cigarette, sole E-cigarette users, and dual users was 9.0% (95% CI=8.6, 9.4), 5.9% (95% CI=5.3, 6.5), and 10.2% (95% CI=9.8, 10.7), respectively. In the fully adjusted model, the ORs for prediabetes were 1.22 (95% CI=1.10, 1.37) for current E-cigarette users and 1.12 (95% CI=1.05, 1.19) for former E-cigarette users compared with that of never E-cigarette users… Conclusions: In this representative sample of U.S. adults, E-cigarette use was associated with greater odds of prediabetes. The results were consistent in sole E-cigarette users."


The Association Between E-Cigarette Use and Prediabetes: Results From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2016–2018

American Journal of Preventive Medicine

Published: March 02, 2022

Zhenyu Zhang, Zhihua Jiao, Michael J. Blaha, Albert Osei, Venkataramana Sidhaye, Jr Murugappan Ramanathan, Shyam Biswal



Related coverage & PR:


Diabetes warning over e-cigarettes: Vaping devices could raise risk of high blood sugar, scientists say


Evidence links e-cigarette use with increased odds of prediabetes



"Craving was more substantially reduced by smoking r-cigs [regular tobacco cigarettes] than by vaping e-cigs [e-cigarettes]. The response time (RT) for the 3-back task was significantly shorter following smoking r-cigs than following vaping e-cigs (interaction: F (1, 17) = 5.3, p = 0.035)… Conclusion: Our findings suggest that insufficient satiety from vaping e-cigs for r-cigs smokers may be insignificant effect on working memory function."


Electronic Cigarette Vaping Did Not Enhance the Neural Process of Working Memory for Regular Cigarette Smokers

Front Hum Neurosci. 2022 Feb 18;16:817538. eCollection 2022.

Dong-Youl Kim, Yujin Jang, Da-Woon Heo, Sungman Jo, Hyun-Chul Kim, Jong-Hwan Lee



Note: Open Access.


"E-cigarette vapers practiced exclusive nasal exhalation at far higher rates than did cigarette smokers (19.5% vs 4.9%). Among vapers, e-cigarette device type was also significantly associated with exhalation profile… It is therefore plausible that [alternative tobacco product-] ATP-specific consumer behaviors may foster unique upper respiratory health consequences that have not been observed in smokers. Thus, product-specific behaviors should inform the prioritization of biological endpoints used in studies evaluating ATP toxicity and health effects."


Exhalation of alternative tobacco product aerosols differs from cigarette smoke-and may lead to alternative health risks

Tob Use Insights. 2022 Feb 28;15:1179173X221078200. eCollection 2022.

Emma Karey, Taylor Reed, Maria Katsigeorgis, Kayla Farrell, Jade Hess, Grace Gibbon, Michael Weitzman, Terry Gordon




Note: Open Access.


"Despite encouraging results globally, some regions and countries have seen less improvement in reducing smoking prevalence, including China. Between 1990 and 2019, smoking prevalence in China decreased less than the global average. In 2019, China had 341 million smokers (24% of China’s population of 1.4 billion) who consumed one-third of the world’s consumption, with smoking prevalence as high as 49.7% in males and 3.54% in females… To guide future improvements, MPOWER will continue to be an important tool. It was estimated that smoking-attributable deaths were 14.6 million less in 43 countries adopting at least one MPOWER policy at the highest level between 2014 and 2016."



Smoking burden, MPOWER, future tobacco control and real-world challenges in China: reflections on the WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic 2021

Transl Lung Cancer Res. 2022 Jan;11(1):117-121.

Kaiping Zhang, Alfredo Tartarone, Mónica Pérez-Ríos, Silvia Novello, Annapaola Mariniello, Giandomenico Roviello, Jianrong Zhang




Note: Open Access.


"Strong flavor-policy jurisdictions significantly differed from matched no-policy jurisdictions in availability of menthol cigarettes (OR = .04, 95% CI: .02-.08) and flavored non-cigarette tobacco (OR = .07, 95% CI: .05-.11). From 2013 to 2019, these jurisdictions experienced significant declines in menthol cigarettes (87.9% to 35.4%) and flavored non-cigarette tobacco sales (63.8% to 37.0%). Conclusion: Strong FT [flavored tobacco] sales restriction policies appear to be effective in reducing availability of FT, thereby creating a healthier retail environment in California."


Evaluating the Impact of Strong and Weak California Flavored Tobacco Sales Restriction Policies on the Tobacco Retail Environment

Am J Health Promot. 2022 Feb 1;8901171211068469. Online ahead of print.

Ralph Amuanyu Welwean, Elizabeth Andersen-Rodgers, Adebayo Akintunde, Xueying Zhang



"Among current smokers, daily versus nondaily smoking was significantly associated with being a minor at time of first cigarette (OR=1.54, p<.001), TRRPs (OR=0.83, p<.001; OR=1.40, p<.001; and OR=1.17, p=.009 [harm perception, worry, and nondaily cigarette harm perception, respectively]), and interaction between cancer survivor status and belief that smoking causes cancer (p<.001)."


Associations of Daily Versus Nondaily Smoking, Tobacco-Related Risk Perception, and Cancer Diagnosis Among Adults in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac059.

Published: 04 March 2022

Stephanie R Land, Laura Baker, Jacqueline Bachand, Jenny Twesten, Carolyn M Reyes-Guzman, Annette R Kaufman



Note: Open Access.


"Tobacco control reduces smoking prevalence and fosters a smoking population more amenable to evidence-based interventions. Based on the weight of the available evidence, the “hardening hypothesis” should be rejected and the reality of softening accepted."


Smokers increasingly motivated and able to quit as smoking prevalence falls: umbrella and systematic review of evidence relevant to the ‘hardening hypothesis’, considering transcendence of manufactured doubt

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac055.

Published: 3 March 2022

Miranda Harris, Melonie Martin, Amelia Yazidjoglou, Laura Ford, Robyn M Lucas, Eryn Newman, Emily Banks





Socioeconomic Status and Tobacco Use



Note: Open Access.


"This study found that combined treatment with varenicline and nicotine patch improved smoking cessation outcomes among smokers who drink heavily, a population who have historically experienced worse outcomes with standard approved treatments for tobacco cessation."


Effect of Combination Treatment With Varenicline and Nicotine Patch on Smoking Cessation Among Smokers Who Drink Heavily

A Randomized Clinical Trial

JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(3):e220951.

March 4, 2022

Andrea King, Ashley Vena, Harriet de Wit, Jon E. Grant, Dingcai Cao



Note: Open Access.


Related PR:


Combination treatment is effective for treating smokers who drink heavily



"NMR [Nicotine metabolite ratio] moderated continuous associations between cigarettes per day over pregnancy and infant birth weight (p = .025). Among women who smoked at moderate levels (<15 cigarettes per day), those with slower NMR showed ~50-100 g decrements in birth weight versus those with faster NMR., while there were no significant associations between NMR and birth weight among women who smoked 15+ cigarettes per day… Conclusions: This is the first demonstration that the maternal nicotine metabolism phenotype moderates associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth weight. Infants of women with slower nicotine metabolism - including disproportionate representation of Black women - may be at heightened risk for morbidity from maternal smoking."


Maternal nicotine metabolism moderates the impact of maternal cigarette smoking on infant birth weight: A Collaborative Perinatal Project investigation

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2022 Feb 17;233:109358. Online ahead of print.

Laura R Stroud, George D Papandonatos, Nancy C Jao, Raymond Niaura, Stephen Buka, Neal L Benowitz



"Current smokers were approximately 18 years younger but had higher left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and similar pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), frequency of hypertension, diabetes and carotid plaques compared to the much older never smokers… Conclusions: Current smoking is associated with signs of early onset of cardiovascular ageing and protein biomarkers that regulate inflammation, endothelial function, metabolism, oncological processes and apoptosis."


Impact of smoking on cardiovascular risk and premature ageing: Findings from the STANISLAS cohort

Atherosclerosis. 2022 Feb 23;346:1-9. Online ahead of print.

Tripti Rastogi, Nicolas Girerd, Zohra Lamiral, Emmanuel Bresso Erwan Bozec, Jean-Marc Boivin, Patrick Rossignol, Faiez Zannad, João Pedro Ferreira



Cigarette taxation and neonatal and infant mortality: A longitudinal analysis of 159 countries

PLOS Global Public Health

Published: March 16, 2022

Márta K. Radó, Anthony A. Laverty,Thomas Hone, Kiara Chang, Mohammed Jawad, Christopher Millett, Jasper V. Been, Filippos T. Filippidis



Note: Open Access.


Related PR:


Raising tax on cigarettes averts thousands of newborn deaths, study reveals


Study finds association between cigarette tax and reduced infant deaths



"In 2020, 19.0% of U.S. adults (47.1 million) used any tobacco product. Cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product (12.5%), followed by e-cigarettes (3.7%). From 2019 to 2020, the prevalence of overall tobacco product use, combustible tobacco product use, cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and use of two or more tobacco products decreased."


Tobacco Product Use Among Adults — United States, 2020

MMWR Weekly / March 18, 2022 / 71(11);397–405

Monica E. Cornelius, Caitlin G. Loretan, Teresa W. Wang, Ahmed Jamal, David M. Homa




Note: Open Access.


Related coverage:


CDC says smoking reached all-time low during the pandemic


US adult smoking rate fell during first year of pandemic



"Approximately 10.7% (7.8–14.3) of dual users with the ITQ [intention to quit] (in 2013) reported cessation (no past-month use of any tobacco) three years later, compared to 16.1% (14.6–17.7) of mono cigarette smokers. Dual users were 83% and 79% less likely to transition to cessation (aRRR: 0.17, 95% CI:0.09–0.32) or mono cigarette use (0.21, 0.14–0.32), respectively, compared to mono cigarette smokers. Our findings show that in a real-world scenario, dual e-cigarette and cigarette use may hinder rather than facilitate smoking cessation among those interested in quitting."


Longitudinal transition outcomes among adult dual users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes with the intention to quit in the United States: PATH Study (2013–2018)

Preventive Medicine Reports Volume 26, April 2022, 101750

Available online 28 February 2022, Version of Record 4 March 2022.



Note: Open Access.


"Results from 104 studies included in this review suggest that higher nicotine concentration and access to a variety of flavors are likely to be associated with higher abuse potential and appeal of e-cigarettes for adult current and former cigarette and e-cigarette users… Regulation of nicotine concentration and flavors aimed at decreasing naïve uptake may inadvertently decrease uptake and complete switching among smokers, reducing the harm reduction potential of e-cigarettes. Evidence-based effects of regulating nicotine concentration and flavors must be considered for the population as a whole, including smokers."


The role of nicotine and flavor in the abuse potential and appeal of electronic cigarettes for adult current and former cigarette and electronic cigarette users: A systematic review

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac073.

Published: 19 March 2022

Mari S Gades, Aleksandra Alcheva, Amy L Riegelman, Dorothy K Hatsukami



Note: Open Access.


"Data from the 2019 YRBSS [Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System] survey in Oakland showed how a city with a convenience store flavoured tobacco sales restriction also saw a reduction in youth vaping that was not accompanied by a rise in combustible cigarette smoking. Across the cities surveyed in this analysis, higher vaping increases from 2017 to 2019 tended to accompany lower combustible cigarette decreases over the same time period, also bolstering the argument against vaping substituting for cigarettes. It is important to evaluate the impacts of public health policies through surveillance of population behaviours to ensure that they do not lead to unintended effects that harm vulnerable groups."


Youth tobacco use before and after flavoured tobacco sales restrictions in Oakland, California and San Francisco, California

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 17 March 2022.

Jessica Liu, Lester Hartman, Andy S L Tan, Jonathan P Winickoff



"Despite being the most popular e-cigarette at the time, fewer than half (47.5%) of respondents identified an image of a JUUL device as an e-cigarette. However, respondents reporting the presence of e-cigarette policies in their schools had higher odds of recognizing e-cigarettes (OR = 3.85, p<0.01), including photo recognition of JUUL (OR = 1.90, p<0.001)… Conclusions: As new tobacco products enter the market, school policies may be important tools to raise school personnel awareness of and intervention on emerging e-cigarette product use. However, policy adoption alone is not sufficient; policy training may further aid in recognition and intervention upon student use of e-cigarettes at school."


E-cigarette school policy and staff training: Knowledge and school policy experiences with e-cigarette products among a national sample of US middle and high school staff


Published: March 16, 2022

Minal Patel, Emily M. Donovan, Bethany J. Simard, Barbara A. Schillo



Note: Open Access.


Related PR:


E-cigarette policies at schools may be insufficient without staff training



"Of the FPs [family physicians], 6.6% have stated that they have recommended ECs [e-cigarettes] to their patients for smoking cessation with the strategy of harm reduction. Factors associated with providers' recommendation of ECs to their patients as a harm reduction strategy included 'believing that ECs help smokers to quit, ECs could be vaped in closed areas, and ECs were healthier than combustible tobacco products'. Conclusion: In our study, FPs stated lack of confidence to advice patients on smoking cessation. Furthermore, they recommended ECs to their smoking patients as a harm reduction strategy."


Do family physicians perceive electronic cigarette use as a harm reduction strategy for smokers? A survey from Istanbul

Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2022 Mar 21;23:e15.

Ozlem Tanriover, Seyhan Hidiroglu , Pinar Ay, Robert L Cook



Note: Open Access.


"For nonsmoking young adults, low argument quantity commercials might have the greatest impact in initiating vaping behavior, which has implications for regulatory policies regarding e-cigarette. Celebrity endorsement was effective in catching nonsmokers' attention but had limited effects on emotional involvement and product adoption."


Nonsmokers' Responses to Online E-Cigarette Commercials: Effects of Argument Quantity and Celebrity Endorsement Paper Resubmitted to Substance Use and Misuse

Subst Use Misuse. 2022 Mar 21;1-8. Online ahead of print.

Jingjing Han, Xia Zheng, Bin Shen, Shaojing Sun



"Participants in the treatment group who had never used e-cigarettes were more likely to report intentions to try e-cigarettes in the future (OR = 1.94, 95% CI [1.08, 3.54], compared to participants in the control group. Participants in the treatment group who had never used e-cigarettes were more likely to report peer influence (OR = 1.97, 95% CI [1.19, 3.32], compared to participants in the control group… Conclusion: Exposure to e-cigarette product placement in music videos may increase young adults' intentions to try e-cigarettes in the future. Federal, state, and local tobacco control regulatory bodies should consider strategies to reduce e-cigarette product placement in music videos."


The impact of e-cigarette product place in music videos on susceptibility to use e-cigarettes among young adults: An experimental investigation

Addict Behav. 2022 Mar 15;130:107307. Online ahead of print.

Scott I Donaldson, Allison Dormanesh, Patricia Escobedo, Anuja Majmundar, Matthew Kirkpatrick, Jon-Patrick Allem



"The most popular products that respondents [in Massachusetts] believed their students were using were JUULs (95.7%), other e-cigarettes (85.3%), and disposable vapes (79.6%)… Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a comprehensive flavor ban may be an effective tobacco control policy that does not appear to promote student switching from vaping products to combusted tobacco products. These data also indicate that schools report needing additional resources to address the vaping epidemic."


The First State Tobacco Flavor Ban: High School Tobacco Control Needs in a Changing Landscape

J Sch Health. 2022 Mar 18. Online ahead of print.

Jessica Liu, Matthew J Reynolds, Lester Hartman, Mark Gottlieb, Jacqueline M Coogan, Jonathan P Winickoff



"The use of combination bupropion/zonisamide to facilitate switching from CC [combustible cigarettes] to ENDS [electronic nicotine delivery systems] is a promising approach that merits follow-up randomized controlled trials. Combining short-term medication approaches with long-term nicotine substitution using ENDS may be a promising strategy to help smokers sustain smoking abstinence in the long term. "


Bupropion/zonisamide combination to assist smokers to switch from combustible cigarettes to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2022 Feb 10;234:109346. Online ahead of print.

Jed E Rose, Perry N Willette, Tanaia L Botts, David R Botts, Frederique M Behm



"Guided by transnational tobacco companies, especially British American Tobacco, Philip Morris International, and RJ Reynolds, Indian cigarette companies formed the Tobacco Institute of India (TII). Following the industry’s global strategy, TII proposed voluntary advertising codes, used diplomatic channels and high level political and judicial lobbying, and allied with other industry, sports and trade groups to delay legislation for ten years… Understanding these strategies can inform public health efforts to counter industry efforts to thwart the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2022 not only in India, where the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has proposed strengthening India’s tobacco control law, but globally."


Tobacco industry thwarts ad ban legislation in India in the 1990s: Lessons for meeting FCTC obligations under Articles 13 and 5.3

Addictive Behaviors

Volume 130, July 2022, 107306

Amit Yadav, Stanton A.Glantz



Note: Open Access.


"The effect of partial bans was limited, and temporary closure of smoking spaces might contribute to increased exposure to secondhand HTP [heated tobacco product] aerosol. Complete smoking bans in the workplace were reaffirmed to be the best way to reduce SHS [secondhand smoke] exposure from cigarettes and exposure to secondhand HTP aerosol."


Impact of workplace smoke-free policy on secondhand smoke exposure from cigarettes and exposure to secondhand heated tobacco product aerosol during COVID-19 pandemic in Japan: the JACSIS 2020 study

BMJ Open. 2022 Mar 18;12(3):e056891.

Koichiro Takenobu, Satomi Yoshida, Kota Katanoda, Koji Kawakami, Takahiro Tabuchi




Note: Open Access.


"We found a statistically significant time-varying mediation effect of varenicline on smoking status through craving, which shows decreasing risk of lapse via reduction in craving. We did not find significant time-varying mediation effects through negative mood and cessation fatigue. Conclusion: This study supports the importance of craving suppression in the smoking cessation process."


Time-varying Mediation of Pharmacological Smoking Cessation Treatments on Smoking Lapse via Craving, Cessation Fatigue, and Negative Mood

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac068.

Published: 14 March 2022

Yajnaseni Chakraborti, Donna L Coffman, Megan E Piper





Packaging characteristics of top-selling cigars in the United States, 2018


When is subnational, supra-local tobacco control ‘just right’? A qualitative study in England


A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Smoking and Circulating Sex Hormone Levels Among Premenopausal Women



Note: Open Access.


"This paper delineates how a program of tobacco smoking cessation after a cancer diagnosis was achieved by engagement of multiple stakeholders, government, and non-government authorities in one jurisdiction in Australia, New South Wales… The position statement, endorsed by nineteen other cancer and non-cancer organisations, provided reassurance to the Institute to improve record capture of hospital smoking information; upskill all clinical staff and develop an automatic "patient opt out" referral to existing resources such as the Quitline and to general practitioners."


Country profile: Australia, New South Wales. From validation to implementation: Progressing tobacco smoking cessation among people with cancer and beyond via relevant authorities

Cancer Epidemiol. 2022 Mar 17;78:102138. Online ahead of print.

Bernard W Stewart, Freddy Sitas, David C Currow






Rassegna Stampa Scientifica Ottobre 2021




Prenatal Tobacco Exposure and the Risk of Tobacco Smoking and Dependence in Offspring: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 Aug 27;227:108993. Online ahead of print.

Bereket Duko, Gavin Pereira, Robert J Tait, Sylvester Dodzi Nyadanu, Kim Betts, Rosa Alati



"The web of this chronic disease, whether it be defined as tobacco use disorder or nicotine dependence, intermingles itself among almost every other disease state, both acute and chronic. It is one of the single most important diagnoses because successful treatment leads to less of a need for treatment of other illnesses such as stroke, peripheral artery disease, coronary disease, and many more. However, we continue to put these and other diagnoses above tobacco use disorder on the problem list, and despite the best efforts of select policy makers and electronic medical record designers, it is subsequently overlooked, ignored, and improperly managed."


Letter to the Editor

Changing the Culture of Tobacco Dependence Treatment Among Not Only Patients, But Also Prescribers

Mayo Clin Proc. 2021 Sep;96(9):2494-2495.

Adam Edward Lang



Authors' Reply:


In Reply: Changing the Culture of Tobacco Dependence Treatment Among Not Only Patients, But Also Prescribers


Note: Open Access.


"We conducted a random effects meta-analysis and examined heterogeneity across 27 studies through subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Tobacco retailer density (RRR=2.55, 95% CI 1.91 to 3.19, k=155) and proximity (RRR=2.38, 95% CI 1.39 to 3.37, k=100) were associated with tobacco use behaviours. Pooled results including both density and proximity found an estimated 2.48% reduction in risk of tobacco use from reductions in tobacco retailer density and proximity (RRR=2.48, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.02, k=255)… Conclusions: Across studies, lower levels of tobacco retailer density and decreased proximity are associated with lower tobacco use. Reducing tobacco supply by limiting retailer density and proximity may lead to reductions in tobacco use."


Associations of tobacco retailer density and proximity with adult tobacco use behaviours and health outcomes: a meta-analysis

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 03 September 2021.

Joseph G L Lee, Amanda Y Kong, Kerry B Sewell, Shelley D Golden, Todd B Combs, Kurt M Ribisl, Lisa Henriksen





Call for emergency action to limit global temperature increases, restore biodiversity and protect health


Note: Open Access.


"An increase in the percent of a county's population covered by smoke-free air laws yielded a significant decline of 2.4% (RR: 0.976, 95%CI: 0.954, 0.997) in acute cerebrovascular disease hospitalizations among older adults. Moreover, significant declines of 2.0% (RR: 0.980, 95%CI: 0.967, 0.994) and 2.8% (RR: 0.972, 95%CI:0.949, 0.996) in acute cerebrovascular disease were observed among older adults in the first year and subsequent years after smoke-free air legislation was implemented, respectively. Conventional cigarette taxes did not yield a significant change in acute cerebrovascular disease hospitalizations, nor did either tobacco control policy lead to a significant decline in acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations."


The impact of smoke-free air laws and conventional cigarette taxes on cardiovascular hospitalizations

Nicotine Tob Res. 2021 Sep 4;ntab158. Online ahead of print.

Jon F Oliver



Analysis of Wholesale Cigarette Sales in Canada After Menthol Cigarette Bans

JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(11):e2133673.

November 9, 2021

Michael Chaiton, Robert Schwartz, Anasua Kundu, Christopher Houston, Robert Nugent



Note: Open Access.


Related coverage:


Study: Ban on menthol cigarettes in Canada had more people quit smoking


In Canada, Ban on Menthol Cigarettes Had More Smokers Quitting



"A total of 1466 respondents (52.8%) — including 145 of 457 current smokers (31.7%), 367 of 682 adults under 30 years of age (53.8%), and 599 of 1122 adults aged 50 or more (53.4%) — thought it would be good were selling cigarettes in retail outlets phased out; 533 (19.2%), including 181 smokers (39.6%), thought it would be bad. A total of 1779 respondents (64.2%) thought it fair to implement the phase‐out within the next ten years… Support for phasing out sales and for doing so within five years was greatest among never smokers and lowest among smokers; age group did not influence support for phasing out sales, but affirming that doing so within five years was fair was higher among respondents aged 30 years or more."


Public support for phasing out the sale of cigarettes in Australia

Med J Aust 2021; 215 (10): 471-472.

Published online: 30 August 2021

Emily Brennan, Sarah Durkin, Michelle M Scollo, Maurice Swanson and Melanie Wakefield



Related MJA Perspective & coverage:


It is time for governments to support retailers in the transition to a smoke‐free society


Australian governments urged to set a date to ban cigarette retail sales



"Wanting and planning to quit were significantly positively associated with making quit attempts, but negatively associated with smoking abstinence. A significant interaction between the Heaviness of Smoking Index and age warranted an age-stratified analysis for both abstinence outcomes. Lower HSI predicted abstinence in only the younger smokers. Motivation and plans to quit were positively associated with abstinence in younger smokers, but surprisingly were negatively associated with abstinence in older smokers."