Rassegna Stampa Scientifica Febbraio 2022




Association of Electronic Cigarette Use with Respiratory Symptom Development among US Young Adults

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2022 Jan 28. Online ahead of print.

Wubin Xie, Alayna P Tackett, Jonathan B Berlowitz, Alyssa F Harlow, Hasmeena Kathuria, Panagis Galiatsatos, Jessica L Fetterman, Junhan Cho, Michael J Blaha, Naomi M Hamburg, Rose Marie Robertson, Andrew P DeFilippis, Michael E Hall, Aruni Bhatnagar, Emelia J Benjamin, Andrew C Stokes 



"We agree also that much more needs to be done in the United States and in countries around the world to reduce the burden of combustible products quickly and decisively and to help smokers quit. However, highlighting e-cigarettes and harm reduction as the only solution disregards the critical utility of proven, established, science-supported interventions. We strongly encourage the scientific community to consider how e-cigarettes (in all of their heterogeneity of design and use patterns) perform in the real world when making conclusions about their effects and move away from the opponents/supporters false dichotomy."



Balancing Consideration of the Risks and Benefits of E-Cigarettes

American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) September 2021

Published Online: September 22, 2021

David J. K. Balfour, Neal L. Benowitz, Suzanne M. Colby, Dorothy K. Hatsukami, Harry A. Lando, Scott J. Leischow, Caryn Lerman, Robin J. Mermelstein, Raymond Niaura, Kenneth A. Perkins, Ovide F. Pomerleau, Nancy A. Rigotti, Gary E. Swan, Kenneth E. Warner, and Robert West



Note: Open Access.


"Young poly-EC [e-cigarette] device users were more likely to begin using at a younger age, live with and have close friends who were EC users, and report greater nicotine dependence. Identifying temporality in these associations can identify youth at greater risk of poly-EC use."


Correlates of youth Poly-E-Cigarette device use

Addict Behav. 2022 Jan 21;129:107248. Online ahead of print.

Nina Hoffmeyer, Alice Hinton, Theodore L Wagener, Alayna P Tackett



"Menthol was the main ingredient in all capsules, and the carcinogenic pulegone was detected. Detected menthofuran, benzyl alcohol, geraniol, and eugenol cause toxic or severe irritation, and detected lactones can increase nicotine addiction by inhibiting nicotine metabolism in smokers. Margin of exposures for carcinogenic pulegone and non-carcinogenic menthol were well below safety thresholds, indicating a significant risk of inhalation exposure. It is desirable to prohibit the use of flavor capsules in consideration of human risk."


Flavor components in tobacco capsules identified through non-targeted quantitative analysis

J Mass Spectrom. 2022 Jan 17;57(2):e4811. Online ahead of print.

Hyun-Hee Lim, Kyeong-Yun Choi, Ho-Sang Shin 



"US direct advertising expenditures for cigarettes fell from 80% of total industry marketing expenditures in 1975 to less than 3% in 2019, while falling from 39% in 1985 to 6% in 2019 for smokeless tobacco. Price discounting expenditures for cigarettes became prominent after the Master Settlement Agreement and related tax increases in 2002. By 2019, 87% of cigarette marketing expenditures were for price discounts and 7% for promotional allowances. Smokeless marketing expenditures were similar: 72% for price promotions and 13% for promotional allowances. Price discounting increased with prices and taxes until reaching their currently high levels."


Follow the money: a closer look at US tobacco industry marketing expenditures

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 24 January 2022.

David T Levy, Alex C Liber, Christopher Cadham, Luz Maria Sanchez-Romero, Andrew Hyland, Michael Cummings, Cliff Douglas, Rafael Meza, Lisa Henriksen






‘That is a Ministry of Health thing’: Article 5.3 implementation in Uganda and the challenge of whole-of-government accountability




Note: Open Access, as are a number of other Tobacco Control papers newly Online First.


"Patients who vaped and developed Covid-19 infection were more likely to have chest pain or tightness (16% vs 10%, vapers vs non vapers, P = .005), chills (25% vs 19%, vapers vs non vapers, P = .0016), myalgia (39% vs 32%, vapers vs non vapers, P = .004), headaches (49% vs 41% vapers vs non vapers, P = .026), anosmia/dysgeusia (37% vs 30%, vapers vs non vapers, P = .009), nausea/vomiting/abdominal pain (16% vs 10%, vapers vs non vapers, P = .003), diarrhea (16% vs 10%, vapers vs non vapers, P = .004), and non-severe light-headedness (16% vs 9%, vapers vs non vapers, P < .001)."


Symptoms COVID 19 Positive Vapers Compared to COVID 19 Positive Non-vapers

J Prim Care Community Health. Jan-Dec 2022;13:21501319211062672.

David D McFadden, Shari L Bornstein, Robert Vassallo, Bradley R Salonen, Mohammed Nadir Bhuiyan, Darrell R Schroeder, Ivana T Croghan




Note: Open Access.


"Tobacco toll on morbidity and mortality is several times higher than those from COVID-19 so far and is a risk factor for worse outcomes for people infected by the virus. Therefore, tobacco places an additional strain on healthcare systems especially in low- and middle-income countries. Looking forward, Jordan seeks to continue to strengthen their tobacco control policies and enforcement mechanism for effective inspection by holding trainings for relevant stakeholders as well as conducting communication campaigns to that end."


COVID-19 as a game changer for national tobacco policies: the experience of Jordan

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac022.

Published: 25 January 2022

Saverio Bellizzi, Zaid AlResheidat, Hala Boukerdenna



Note: Open Access.


"Respondents (aged 50 +) with a smoking history and at least one smoking-related health condition were pooled from the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) from four waves from 2004 to 2013… Although women are less likely to smoke than men, they were more likely to smoke persistently. The effects of education and general TCPs [tobacco control policies] on persistent smoking were significant for women only. Compared to women with low levels of education, those with moderate education (odds ratio [OR] = .63; .49-.82) and high education (OR=.57; .34-.98) are less likely to be persistent smokers. TCPs are associated with a reduced risk of women's persistent smoking (OR = .70, .51-.95) and the association is stronger for those having less education."


Gender, Tobacco control policies, and persistent smoking among older adults: A longitudinal analysis of 11 European countries

Nicotine Tob Res. 2022 Jan 29;ntac023. Online ahead of print.

Manjing Gao, Chioun Lee, Soojin Park





Can states continue to set the agenda for Tobacco 21? Insights from U.S. News Coverage between 2012-2020


Is Illicit Cigarette Market a Threat to Tobacco Control in Ethiopia?



"This study examines associations between tobacco retailer density and neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics in the United States at four time points from 2000 to 2017. Although some associations weakened, there are sociodemographic disparities in tobacco retailer density over the study period. Research suggests that sociodemographic disparities in retailer density may contribute to inequities in smoking."


Sociodemographic Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density in the United States, 2000 - 2017

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac020.

Published: 25 January 2022

Sarah D Mills, Amanda Y Kong, Alexandria E Reimold, Chris D Baggett, Christopher A Wiesen, Shelley D Golden



"In the multivariable analyses [from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986], maternal smoking during pregnancy did not associate with the studied outcomes after adjusting for offspring smoking and other substance use at offspring age 15-16 years and parental psychiatric disorders. However, paternal smoking ≥10 cigarettes/day before pregnancy [hazard ratio (HR) = 5.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7-11.2, P < 0.001] and paternal psychiatric disorders (HR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.8, P = 0.028) associated with offspring SUD [substance use disorders] after adjustments."


Parental smoking and young adult offspring psychosis, depression and anxiety disorders and substance use disorder

Eur J Public Health. 2022 Jan 29;ckac004. Online ahead of print.

Marian Sarala, Antti Mustonen, Anni-Emilia Alakokkare, Caroline Salom, Jouko Miettunen, Solja Niemelä 



Note: Open Access.


"Maternal smoking during pregnancy was significantly associated with the risk of LBW [low birth weight] in offspring (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.80-1.98). Furthermore, an obvious dose-response relationship between the amount of cigarettes daily smoked in pregnancy and the risk of LBW in offspring was observed. The results of subgroup analyses indicated that the risk of maternal smoking on LBW was larger in more recently conducted studies (P = 0.020) and longer period of active smoking during pregnancy (P = 0.002)… The risk of maternal smoking on infant LBW seems to be increasing over time, and was higher with longer smoking duration throughout pregnancy and more cigarettes smoked daily."


Maternal smoking status during pregnancy and low birth weight in offspring: systematic review and meta-analysis of 55 cohort studies published from 1986 to 2020

World J Pediatr. 2022 Jan 28. Online ahead of print.

Hong-Kun Di, Yong Gan, Kai Lu, Chao Wang, Yi Zhu, Xin Meng, Wen-Qi Xia, Min-Zhi Xu, Jing Feng, Qing-Feng Tian, Yan He, Zhi-Qiang Nie, Jun-An Liu, Fu-Jian Song, Zu-Xun Lu



"In this cross-sectional study, persistent smoking was associated with worse audiometric hearing and speech-in-noise perception. Hearing measures among participants who quit smoking during the study period did not differ from those for never or former smokers, indicating that smoking cessation (as opposed to persistent smoking) may have benefits for hearing health."


Association of Cigarette Smoking Patterns Over 30 Years With Audiometric Hearing Impairment and Speech-in-Noise Perception

The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Published online January 27, 2022.

Emmanuel E. Garcia Morales, James Ting, Alden L. Gross, Joshua F. Betz, Kening Jiang, Simo Du, Melinda C. Power, Nicholas S. Reed, A. Richey Sharrett, Frank R. Lin, Jennifer A. Deal



"We use self-reported data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), cigarette taxes to instrument for changes in smoking, and survey completion to instrument for misreporting. Starting with the baseline two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimator common in the earlier observational literature, we obtain similar estimates suggesting quitting smoking substantially reduces BMI [Body Mass Index]. However, we find the results are sensitive to specification, functional form, and the presence of misreporting… Our preferred estimate suggests reduced smoking accounts for 6% of the concurrent rise in obesity."


Does Quitting Smoking Increase Obesity? Evidence From Accounting for Misreporting


ISSUE DATE January 2022

Rusty Tchernis, Keith F. Teltser & Arjun Teotia





Have Recreational Marijuana Laws Undermined Public Health Progress on Adult Tobacco Use?



"Medication sampling was the dominant strategy compared to standard care. Our intervention cost $75, yielding a discounted lifetime savings of $1065 in healthcare expenditures, and increased both discounted quality-adjusted life years and discounted life years by 0.01. One-way sensitivity analyses showed that medication sampling remained dominant in plausible ranges except when it failed to increase cessation relative to standard care… Conclusion: Medication sampling, an easily implementable, scalable and low-cost intervention to encourage smoking cessation, is cost saving and improves quality of life."


The Cost-Effectiveness of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Sampling in Primary Care: a Markov Cohort Simulation Model

J Gen Intern Med. 2022 Jan 28. Online ahead of print.

Brian Chen, Gerard A Silvestri, Jennifer Dahne, Kyueun Lee, Matthew J Carpenter https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11606-021-07335-x


"In this study, we identified smoker subgroups based on response accuracy during a Parametric Flanker Task (PFT) and then characterized distinct neuroimaging endophenotypes using a nicotine state manipulation… Unpacking underlying smoker heterogeneity with this 'dual (task and abstinence) stressor' approach revealed discrete smoker subgroups with differential attentional deficits to withdrawal that could be novel pharmacological/behavioral targets for therapeutic interventions to improve cessation outcomes."


Not all smokers are alike: the hidden cost of sustained attention during nicotine abstinence

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2022 Jan 28. Online ahead of print.

Harshawardhan U Deshpande, John R Fedota, Juan Castillo, Betty Jo Salmeron, Thomas J Ross, Elliot A Stein




Note: Open Access.


Physical and mental health outcomes associated with adolescent E-cigarette use

J Pediatr Nurs. 2022 Feb 1;64:1-17. Online ahead of print.

Jennifer A Livingston, Chia-Hui Chen, Misol Kwon, Eunhee Park



"More than 90% of the sample indicated that JUUL was at least moderately addictive, whereas less than one-quarter indicated that JUUL was as harmful or more harmful than smoking. Higher levels of perceived JUUL addictiveness were associated with more quit intentions, attempts, and importance. Higher levels of perceived JUUL harm compared with smoking were associated with more quit importance."


Intentions and Attempts to Quit JUUL E-Cigarette Use: The Role of Perceived Harm and Addiction

Prev Chronic Dis. 2022 Feb 3;19:E06.

Andréa L Hobkirk, Brianna Hoglen, Tianhong Sheng, Ava Kristich, Jessica M Yingst, Kenneth R Houser, Nicolle M Krebs, Sophia I Allen, Candace R Bordner, Craig Livelsberger, Jonathan Foulds




Note: Open Access.


"Sentiment analysis revealed that after the announcement of the New York State flavor policy, in both New York State and other states, the proportion of negative tweets on e-cigarettes increased from 34.07% (4531/13,299) to 44.58% (18,451/41,390) and from 32.48% (14,320/44,090) to 44.40% (64,262/144,734), respectively, while positive tweets decreased significantly from 39.03% (5191/13,299) to 32.86% (13,601/41,390) and from 42.78% (18,863/44,090) to 33.93% (49,105/144,734), respectively… Conclusions: Public attitudes toward e-cigarettes became more negative on Twitter after New York State announced the policy on flavored e-cigarettes. Twitter users in other states that did not have such a policy on flavored e-cigarettes paid close attention to the New York State flavor policy."


Public Reactions to the New York State Policy on Flavored Electronic Cigarettes on Twitter: Observational Study

JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2022 Feb 3;8(2):e25216.

Li Sun, Xinyi Lu, Zidian Xie, Dongmei Li




Note: Open Access.


"Three hundred and twelve trials (250 563 participants) were included… Adding multiple components that are commonly used in behavioural counselling suggested clinically relevant and statistically conclusive evidence of benefit. Components with the largest effects that could be combined, but rarely have been, were estimated to increase the odds of quitting between two and threefold… Conclusions: Among the components of behavioural support for smoking cessation, behavioural counselling and guaranteed financial incentives are associated with the greatest success."


Behavioural programmes for cigarette smoking cessation: investigating interactions between behavioural, motivational and delivery components in a systematic review and component network meta-analysis


First published: 05 January 2022

Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, José M. Ordóñez-Mena, Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, Thomas R. Fanshawe, Nicola Lindson, Suzanne C. Freeman, Alex J. Sutton, Annika Theodoulou, Paul Aveyard




Note: Open Access.


"Delayed quitters smoked their first cigarette of the day earlier, had more past quit attempts, had lower confidence in quitting successfully, were more likely female and more likely to use varenicline. One-year relapse rates were 53% for immediate quitters and 77% for delayed quitters (OR=2.83; 95%CI: [1.70-4.72]). In a multivariable regression adjusted for potential confounders delayed quitting remained significantly associated with relapse at one year (OR=2.41; 95%CI: [1.38-4.21]). Conclusion: Ex-smokers who do not achieve abstinence on their TQD [target quit date] are at a higher risk of relapse than those who do. The effect was not explained by baseline variables."


Are ‘delayed quitters’ more likely to relapse than smokers who quit on their target quit date? A retrospective analysis of clinical records

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac028.

Published: 31 January 2022

Benjamin Borchardt, Rudolf Schoberberger, Peter Hajek





Nicotine patch alters patterns of cigarette smoking-induced dopamine release: Patterns relate to biomarkers associated with treatment response


Growing evidence for a causal role for smoking in mental health


Novel nicotine concentration labels improve adolescents’ and young adults’ understanding of the nicotine strength of electronic nicotine delivery system products



Note: Nicotine patch and mental health papers Open Access.


"We found contrasting levels of awareness of Article 5.3 across government sectors, with extremely limited awareness in departments beyond health. The data also highlight competing ideas about conflict of interest, in which recognition of a fundamental conflict of interest with the tobacco industry is largely confined to health actors… Conclusion: The Ethiopian government’s recent achievements in tobacco control legislation require that policymakers are actively supported in reconciling perceived tensions and requirements for stakeholder consultation. Effective tobacco control governance would be further enhanced by enabling government agencies to more clearly identify which interactions with the tobacco industry are strictly necessary under Article 5.3 guideline recommendations."


‘They have a right to participate as a stakeholder’: Article 5.3 implementation and government interactions with the tobacco industry in Ethiopia

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 31 January 2022.

Selamawit Hirpa, Rob Ralston, Wakgari Deressa, Jeff Collin




Note: Open Access.


"The results of this study shows that FCTC [Framework Convention on Tobacco Control] ratification, which can be an important driver for more effective tobacco control, does not necessarily have a negative impact on the economy. Instead, FCTC ratification may be beneficial for both health and economic outcomes, as it provides comprehensive guidance for reducing smoking prevalence that take into account social and economic factors."


FCTC ratification, smoking prevalence, and GDP per capita: lessons for Indonesia and the rest of the world

Global Health. 2022 Feb 5;18(1):11.

Abdillah Ahsan, Rifai Afin, Nadira Amalia, Martha Hindriyani, Ardhini Risfa Jacinda, Elisabeth Kramer




Note: Open Access.


"Due to the dynamic expression of the cholinergic system throughout the lifespan, chronic and acute nicotine exposure differentially affect brain structure, function, and behavior in the perinatal period, adolescence, and adulthood. The patterns of expression and pharmacological and physiological properties of nAChRs [nicotinic acetylcholine receptors] are unique to the developmental period. Nicotine exposure during the perinatal period disrupts general growth, cardiovascular and lung function, the endocrine system, motor function, reward, and attention. Adolescent nicotine exposure enhances susceptibility to addiction, impulsivity, and mood disorders. While nicotine exposure during adulthood may not have the apparent adverse consequences on the brain seen in earlier critical developmental windows, the health risks associated with tobacco and nicotine use are equally destructive."


Unique effects of nicotine across the lifespan

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2022 Feb 2;173343. Online ahead of print.

Michelle Ren, Shahrdad Lotfipour, Frances Leslie



"Data from 161,233 ever smokers (12.8% with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed in 2020… Adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who smoked had greater age-adjusted past-year quit attempts (68.8% vs 64.3%) but lower recent successful cessation (4.5% vs 5.8%) and quit ratio (53.2% vs 63.9%) than those without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. After adjusting for covariates, adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who smoked had a significantly higher percentage of past-year quit attempts but similar recent successful cessation and a significantly lower lifetime quit ratio than their counterparts without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions: These findings suggest that individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who try to quit smoking may be less likely to succeed than those without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease."


Smoking Cessation Among U.S. Adult Smokers With and Without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 2018

Am J Prev Med. 2022 Feb 1;S0749-3797(22)00001-0. Online ahead of print.

Yong Liu, Kurt J Greenlund, Brenna VanFrank, Fang Xu, Hua Lu, Janet B Croft



"Compared with non-smoker-low CRF [cardiorespiratory fitness], smoker-low CRF was associated with an increased COPD [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] risk in multivariable analysis 9.79 (95% CI 5.61-17.08), with attenuated but persisting evidence of an association for smoker-high CRF and COPD risk 6.10 (95% CI 3.22-11.57). An additive interaction was found between smoking status and CRF (RERI = 6.99). Except for CRF and COPD risk, all associations persisted on accounting for mortality as a competing risk event. Despite a wealth of evidence on the ability of high CRF to offset the adverse effects of other risk factors, it appears high CRF levels have only modest attenuating effects on the very strong association between smoking and COPD risk."


Cardiorespiratory fitness does not offset the increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attributed to smoking: a cohort study

Eur J Epidemiol. 2022 Feb 5. Online ahead of print.

Setor K Kunutsor, Sae Young Jae, Timo H Mäkikallio, Jari A Laukkanen




Note: Open Access.


"Between Timepoints 2 and 3, abstinence rates decreased by 11%, and 40% of participants reported a smoking status change. Among those reporting a change and the highest general stress levels, newly abstinent participants had higher perceived risk of complications from COVID-19 related to smoking than those who relapsed during pandemic (mean (standard deviation): 14.2 (3.3) vs. 12.6 (3.8))… Implications: We observed an increase in smoking rates during the COVID-19 pandemic. In exploring how combinations of general stress levels, COVID-19 distress levels, and perceived risk of complications from COVID-19 related to smoking were associated with changes in smoking, we observed expected patterns of these factors among individuals who sustained abstinence or smoking."


Characterizing pandemic-related changes in smoking over time in a cohort of current and former smokers

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac033.

Published: 05 February 2022

Catherine S Nagawa, Mayuko Ito Fukunaga, Jamie M Faro, Feifan Liu, Ekaterina Anderson, Ariana Kamberi, Elizabeth A Orvek, Maryann Davis, Lori Pbert, Sarah L Cutrona, Thomas K Houston, Rajani S Sadasivam



Note: Open Access.


"The current COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in unexpected alterations in routine and changes in health behaviors. A quarter of all participants said they had changed their smoking habits, with an equal percentage saying they had increased or decreased their smoking."


Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on smoking behavior and beliefs among the American University of Beirut community

Tob Prev Cessat. 2022 Jan 24;8:02. eCollection 2022.

Yasmina Al Ghadban, Nathalie Zgheib, Maya Romani, Imad Bou Akl, Rihab Nasr



Note: Open Access.


"Smoking in pregnancy is a complex issue resulting from a combination of social, emotional, and physical factors. The findings from this study suggest that a combination of approaches should be made available to enable pregnant women who smoke to select the best options for their individual needs. Irrespective of the practical support offered, there is a need for informed, sensitive, individualised support system that women can identify with."


'I don't need you to criticise me, I need you to support me'. A qualitative study of women's experiences of and attitudes to smoking cessation during pregnancy

Women Birth. 2022 Jan 31;S1871-5192(22)00013-0. Online ahead of print.

Tomasina Stacey, Jayne Samples, Chelsea Leadley Lisa Akester, Azariah Jenney



"An approximately linear relationship between continuous ATE [accumulated tobacco exposure] and survival estimates was identified… Conclusion: Tobacco smoking (assessed as smoking status and ATE) was associated with inferior survival (OS [overall survival] and DFS [disease-free survival]) among patients with OSCC [oral squamous cell carcinoma]. Unfavorable long-term prognosis was significant for patients who continued smoking compared to patients with smoking cessation at diagnosis."


The impact of tobacco smoking on survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma: a population-based retrospective study

Acta Oncol. 2022 Feb 4;1-10. Online ahead of print.

Amanda Oester Andersen, Jakob Schmidt Jensen, Kathrine Kronberg Jakobsen, Helene Stampe, Kristoffer Juul Nielsen, Irene Wessel, Anders Christensen, Elo Andersen, Jeppe Friborg, Christian Grønhøj, Christian von Buchwald



Effectiveness of e-cigarettes as aids for smoking cessation: evidence from the PATH Study cohort, 2017–2019

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 07 February 2022

Ruifeng Chen, John P Pierce, Eric C Leas, Tarik Benmarhnia, David R Strong, Martha M White, Matthew Stone, Dennis R Trinidad, Sara B McMenamin, Karen Messer




Note: Open Access.


Related coverage:


Study: E-Cigs Are Not Helping People Quit Smoking


Study: Fewer successful quitters use e-cigarettes compared to other cessation aids


E-cigarettes were less effective than gum and other nicotine replacement aids, study says



"A wide range of ENDS [electronic nicotine delivery systems], including multiple types of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine, a heated tobacco product, and an ultrasonic vaping device devoid of heating coil, all impair FMD [flow-mediated dilation] after a single vaping session comparably to combusted cigarettes."


Comparable Impairment of Vascular Endothelial Function by a Wide Range of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Devices

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac019.

Published: 31 January 2022

Poonam Rao, Daniel D Han, Kelly Tan, Leila Mohammadi, Ronak Derakhshandeh, Mina Navabzadeh, Natasha Goyal, Matthew L Springer



"If we carry on as we are, we are unlikely to address this important scientific and public health question satisfactorily and may merely perpetuate disagreement by selective reporting of results that favour one direction or the other of a gateway effect.… Based on the current balance of evidence, using triangulated data from recent population-level cross-contextual comparisons, individual-level genetic analyses and modelling, we do believe, however, that causal claims about a strong gateway effect from e-cigarettes to smoking are unlikely to hold, while it remains too early to preclude other smaller or opposing effects."


Unpacking the gateway hypothesis of e-cigarette use: The need for triangulation of individual- and population-level data

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac035.

Published: 09 February 2022

Lion Shahab, Jamie Brown, Lies Boelen, Emma Beard, Robert West, Marcus R Munafò



Note: Open Access.


"When comparing the odds of reporting tobacco use at Wave 14 to Wave 13, no differences emerged (p > 0.05). However, when comparing tobacco use at Wave 15 to Wave 14, participants had 40% lower odds of reporting past 30-day cigarette use (p = 0.02) and 50% lower odds of reporting past 30-day e-cigarette use (p < 0.01). The current study provides initial evidence that young adults may have reduced their tobacco and nicotine use during the stay-at-home orders."


Decreases in smoking and vaping during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders among a cohort of young adults in the United States

Prev Med. 2022 Feb 8;106992. Online ahead of print.

Rachel Denlinger-Apte, Cynthia K Suerken, Jennifer Cornacchione Ross, Beth A Reboussin, John Spangler, Kimberly G Wagoner, Erin L Sutfin



Note: Open Access.


"Multivariable analyses found no significant association between follow-up e-cigarette use and 6-month cigarette abstinence. E-cigarette use at follow-up was higher in the Standard vs Intensive treatment group (p=0.003 and 0.001 at 3 and 6 mo, respectively). Smoking cessation and health concerns were primary reasons for using e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Among individuals who smoke recently diagnosed with cancer and enrolled in a smoking cessation intervention trial, e-cigarette use during trial participation was not associated with smoking abstinence."


Longitudinal Electronic Cigarette Use among Patients Recently Diagnosed with Cancer Enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Trial

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac031.

Published: 04 February 2022

Sara Kalkhoran, Joanna M Streck, Gina R Kruse, Nancy A Rigotti, Giselle K Perez, Susan Regan, Colin J Ponzani, Alona Muzikansky, Elyse R Park, Jamie S Ostroff





Multiple Tobacco Product Use Conceptual Framework: A 2021 Update on Evidence


Biomarkers of Exposure and Biomarkers of Potential Harm in Adult Smokers Who Switch to E-vapor Products Relative to Cigarette Smoking in a 24-week, Randomized, Clinical Trial



Note: Biomarkers paper Open Access.


"Puff Bars have increased in popularity as their product design evaded strict regulations imposed on alternate e-cigarette products, such as Juul. In addition, Puff Bars sweet and fruity flavors and marketing on social media have made their use pervasive among youth. Puff Bar use can lead to increased risk of e-cigarette product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) and potential exposure to carcinogens. Furthermore, the developmental risks of nicotine use during adolescence include negative effects on cognitive function and detriments to short-term memory."


Puff bars: a dangerous trend in adolescent disposable e-cigarette use

Curr Opin Pediatr. 2022 Feb 11. Online ahead of print.

Hannah Rosenthal, Nelson Chow, Setu Mehta, Duy Pham, Ruth Milanaik



"PMI [Philip Morris International] uses similar tactics to promote IQOS at POS [point-of-sale] as they previously used for combustible products, including direct promotional activities with retailers, and circumvented legislation by using special displays and signage. Governments need to ban these measures and support retailers with clear practical guidance regarding the implementation of marketing restrictions at POS."


IQOS marketing strategies at point-of-sales: a cross-sectional survey with retailers

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 09 February 2022.

Yael Bar-Zeev, Carla J Berg, Amal Khayat, Katelyn F Romm, Chritina N Wysota, Lorien C Abroms, Daniel Elbaz, Hagai Levine



"Our analysis identifies common barriers to coordination across diverse geographical contexts and varying approaches to implementation. They highlight broadly shared experiences of limited understanding and engagement beyond health agencies; restricted responsibility and uncertainty amid conflicting mandates; tensions with wider governance practices and norms; limited capacity and authority of coordination mechanisms; and obstacles to vertical coordination across local, state and national governments."


Advancing whole-of-government approaches to tobacco control: Article 5.3 and the challenge of policy coordination in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India and Uganda

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 11 February 2022.

Rachel Ann Barry, S M Abdullah, Aastha Chugh, Selamawit Hirpa, Praveen Kumar, Denis Male, Rob Ralston, Tracey Wagner-Rizvi, Jeff Collin





Understanding the dynamics of notification and implementation of Article 5.3 across India’s states and union territories


Promoting convergence and closing gaps using affordability-based minimum taxes: an illustration using the European Union Tobacco Tax Directive



Note: Open Access.


"This study is the first to assess the potential of a botanical biofilter with the species Spathiphyllum wallisii (Peace Lily) for the removal of cigarette-derived VOCs [volatile organic compounds] and all size fractions of PM [particulate matter]. Single pass removal efficiencies of 43.26% for total VOCs and 34.37% for total suspended particles were achieved. The botanical biofilter reduced the concentrations of a range of harmful ETS [environmental tobacco smoke] chemicals including nicotine, limonene, and toluene. Evaluation of the re-emission of ETS constituents filtered by the botanical biofilter revealed no particle resuspension or off gassing. The results demonstrate the potential of botanical biofilters to reduce public ETS exposure, although further research is needed to improve upon and ensure the efficiency of these systems for practical applications."


The botanical biofiltration of volatile organic compounds and particulate matter derived from cigarette smoke

Chemosphere. 2022 Feb 9;133942. Online ahead of print.

Angela L Morgan, Fraser R Torpy, Peter J Irga, Robert Fleck, Raissa L Gill, Thomas Pettit



"The varenicline group (n = 499) had significantly higher 7-day PPA (30.3%) compared to the bupropion group (n = 465; 19.6%) at end of treatment (OR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.49–2.90, p < 0.001). Seven-day PPA was also higher for the varenicline group at 4-weeks (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.23–2.40 p = 0.0001), and 8-weeks follow-up (OR=1.95, 95% CI: 1.43–2.67 p < 0.0001), but not at post-treatment follow-up… Conclusions: This internet-based pharmacotherapy intervention was a feasible and effective method of treatment delivery for smoking cessation."


Evaluating the effectiveness of bupropion and varenicline for smoking cessation using an internet-based delivery system: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial (MATCH study)

Drug and Alcohol Dependence

Available online 9 February 2022, 109312

Helena Zhang, Tara Mansoursadeghi-Gilan, Sarwar Hussain, Scott Veldhuizen, Bernard Le Foll, Peter Selby, Laurie Zawertailo



Related PR:


Smoking cessation drugs prescribed over the internet are as safe and effective as in-person treatment



"Although this cross-sectional study examined a convenience sample from 1 children’s hospital, the high prevalence of THS [thirdhand smoke] exposure among all children younger than 12 years is concerning, because there is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke toxicants. While parents’ efforts to protect their children from tobacco smoke pollutants did not fully prevent exposure, they reduced the magnitude of exposure by a mean of 86%. The association between income and hand nicotine among protected and unprotected children, independent of other variables, points to a troubling potential role of income-related disparities, such as housing type and quality, in THS exposure."


Prevalence and Income-Related Disparities in Thirdhand Smoke Exposure to Children

JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(2):e2147184.

February 7, 2022

Georg E. Matt, Ashley L. Merianos, Penelope J. E. Quintana, Eunha Hoh, Nathan G. Dodder, E. Melinda Mahabee-Gittens



Note: Open Access.


Related coverage:


Almost all kids have tobacco on their hands, even in non-smoking homes



"After adjustment for potential confounders, the inverse association between smoking during pregnancy and children's IQ [intelligence quotient] remained significant in both cohorts. Offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy had an average of 1.32 less IQ points (95%CI: -2.23, -0.242) in the 1982 cohort, and an average of 1.66 less IQ points (95%CI: -2.42, -0.90) in the 1993 cohort. Neither cohort showed association with paternal smoking (negative controls) after adjustment… The inverse association between maternal smoking and IQ and the lack of association with paternal smoking reinforces our findings of a negative association between exposure and outcome."


Maternal smoking during pregnancy and intelligence quotient of offspring aged 18 and 30 years: Evidence from two birth cohorts in southern Brazil

Prev Med. 2022 Feb 9;106983. Online ahead of print.

Mariana Lima Corrêa, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro da Silva, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Bernardo L Horta, Helen Gonçalves, Luciana Anselmi, Fernando Barros, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes



"Nicotine administration normalized DMN [default mode network] hyperconnectivity in schizophrenia. We here provide direct evidence that the biological basis of nicotine dependence is different in schizophrenia and in non-schizophrenia populations. Our results suggest the high prevalence of nicotine use in schizophrenia may be an attempt to correct a network deficit known to interfere with cognition."


Evidence for Schizophrenia-Specific Pathophysiology of Nicotine Dependence

Front Psychiatry. 2022 Jan 27;13:804055. eCollection 2022.

Heather Burrell Ward, Adam Beermann, Uzma Nawaz, Mark A Halko, Amy C Janes, Lauren V Moran, Roscoe O Brady Jr



Note: Open Access.



Synthetic Cooling Agents in US-marketed E-cigarette Refill Liquids and Popular Disposable Ecigarettes: Chemical Analysis and Risk Assessment

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac046.

Published: 15 February 2022

Sairam V Jabba, Hanno C Erythropel, Deyri Garcia Torres, Lauren A Delgado, Jackson G Woodrow, Paul T Anastas, Julie B Zimmerman, Sven-Eric Jordt





Bridging: Accelerating Regulatory Acceptance of Reduced-Risk Tobacco and Nicotine Products



Note: Reduced-risk product paper Open Access.


"Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) product form matters. Similarity to combustible cigarettes influences health risk perceptions, and, in turn, there are effects on willingness to try the product. There are differences in mediation effects across current vapers and non-vapers. These results contribute to understanding reasons why the public health community should monitor and consider how manipulations in product form can affect and reduce health risk perceptions."


An Examination Perceptions of Similarity to Cigarettes, Health Risk Perceptions, and Willingness to Try Across Nicotine Vaping Products

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac047.

Published: 16 February 2022

Christopher Berry, Scot Burton





Is e-cigarette use associated with persistence or discontinuation of combustible cigarettes? A 24-month longitudinal investigation in young adult binge drinkers



"Our findings indicate that risk perceptions of exacerbated threats may reduce e-cigarette use directly, and also indirectly through shifting certain types of motivations for vaping. Beyond elucidating the relational dynamics between vaping psychology and health risks, these results also indicate health professionals may leverage the pandemic to promote nicotine cessation or reduced use."


Vaping in a Time of Pandemics: Risk Perception and Motivations for Electronic Cigarette Use

Nicotine Tob Res. 2022 Feb 19;ntac050. Online ahead of print.

Xiaozhao Yousef Yang, Brian C Kelly, Mark Pawson, Michael Vuolo



"In this comprehensive review, we discuss the diverse spectrum of vaping exposures, epidemiological and clinical reports, and experimental findings to provide a better understanding of EVALI [E-cigarette, or Vaping Product-Use Associated Lung Injury] and the adverse health effects of chronic e-cigarette exposure."


Vaping and Lung Inflammation and Injury

Annual Review of Physiology

Vol. 84:611-629 (Volume publication date February 2022)

First published as a Review in Advance on November 1, 2021

Jin-Ah Park, Laura E. Crotty Alexander, and David C. Christiani



Related PR:


Research roundup: E-cigs aren’t safe



"Statewide restrictions on non-tobacco-flavored e-cigarette sales were associated with the following reductions in mean 4-week total e-cigarette sales in intervention states compared with control states from October 2019 to December 2020: 30.65% (95% CI, 24.08%-36.66%) in New York, 31.26% (95% CI, 11.94%-46.34%) in Rhode Island, and 25.01% (95% CI, 18.43%-31.05%) in Washington. In Massachusetts, the comprehensive sales prohibition of all e-cigarette products was associated with a 94.38% (95% CI, 93.37%-95.23%) reduction in 4-week sales compared with control states… These findings suggest that not all e-cigarette users who purchased non-tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes switched to purchasing tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes after policy implementation."


Evaluation of Statewide Restrictions on Flavored e-Cigarette Sales in the US From 2014 to 2020

JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Feb 1;5(2):e2147813.

Fatma Romeh M Ali, Donna Vallone, Elizabeth L Seaman, Jamie Cordova, Megan C Diaz, Michael A Tynan, Katrina F Trivers, Brian A King



Note: Open Access.


"In this sample of adult smokers, all evaluated JUUL and IQOS products delivered less nicotine than UB [usual brand] cigarettes. IQOS delivered more nicotine than JUUL2 prototype 18 mg/mL and JUUL 59 mg/mL, but JUUL products were generally rated as more satisfying and more effective at reducing craving than IQOS—the JUUL2 prototype 18 mg/mL and JUUL 59 mg/mL were also less aversive than IQOS. Use of JUUL 59 mg/mL and JUUL2 prototype 18 mg/mL was well tolerated under both use conditions, whereas the JUUL2 prototype 40 mg/mL generated some aversive responses. JUUL2 prototype 18 mg/mL may provide a basis for future ENDS [electronic nicotine delivery systems] products that can facilitate increased switching among adult smokers."


Pharmacokinetic and subjective assessment of prototype JUUL2 electronic nicotine delivery system in two nicotine concentrations, JUUL system, IQOS, and combustible cigarette

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2022 Feb 20. Online ahead of print.

Nicholas I Goldenson, Erik M Augustson, Joey Chen, Saul Shiffman


This study was funded by Juul Labs, Inc.

Conflict of interest

Authors NIG, EMA and JC are full-time employees of Juul Labs, Inc.

SS is a senior advisor to Pinney Associates, Inc. Pinney Associates provides consulting services on tobacco harm reduction on an exclusive basis to Juul Labs, Inc.




Note: Open Access vaping industry research.


"Compared with never smokers, people currently smoking were at lower risk of COVID-19 hospitalization, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 0.64 (95% confidence intervals 0.60 to 0.69) for <10 cigarettes/day, 0.49 (0.41 to 0.59) for 10-19 cigarettes/day, and 0.61 (0.49 to 0.74) for ≥20 cigarettes/day. For ICU [Intensive Care Unit] admission, the corresponding HRs were 0.31 (0.24 to 0.40), 0.15 (0.06 to 0.36), and 0.35 (0.17 to 0.74) and death were: 0.79 (0.70 to 0.89), 0.66 (0.48 to 0.90), and 0.77 (0.54 to 1.09) respectively. Former smokers were at higher risk of severe COVID-19: HRs: 1.07 (1.03 to 1.11) for hospitalization, 1.17 (1.04 to 1.31) for ICU admission, and 1.17 (1.10 to 1.24) for death. All-cause mortality was higher for current smoking than never smoking, HR 1.42 (1.36 to 1.48)… Conclusions: Current smoking was associated with a reduced risk of severe COVID-19 but the association with e-cigarette use was unclear."


Association between smoking, e-cigarette use and severe COVID-19: a cohort study

Int J Epidemiol. 2022 Feb 18;dyac028. Online ahead of print.

Min Gao, Paul Aveyard, Nicola Lindson, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Peter Watkinson, Duncan Young, Carol Coupland, Ashley K Clift, David Harrison, Doug Gould, Ian D Pavord, Margaret Smith, Julia Hippisley-Cox 



Note: Open Access.


"Overall, 24.0% of US smokers last purchased cigarettes by the carton in early 2018; this increased to 28.8% in early 2020 (p = 0.007). Average daily cigarette consumption and the percentage of smokers reporting that smoking was not allowed inside their homes did not differ between 2018 and 2020 (p = 0.92 and p = 0.054, respectively). Overall, these findings suggest that COVID-19 mitigation measures implemented in the spring of 2020 had limited impact on the smoking behavior of US adult smokers."


Was COVID-19 associated with increased cigarette purchasing, consumption, and smoking at home among US smokers in early 2020? Findings from the US arm of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey

Addict Behav. 2022 Feb 6;129:107276. Online ahead of print.

Pete Driezen, Karin A Kasza, Shannon Gravely, Mary E Thompson, Geoffrey T Fong, K Michael Cummings, Andrew Hyland



Note: Open Access.


"Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed that combined risk messages elicited higher perceived severity of smoking-related disease than control messages. Similarly, the combined risk condition resulted in greater intentions to quit smoking in the next month (vs. COVID-19 risk condition) and intentions to reduce smoking in the next 6 months (vs. smoking risk and control; ps < .05). Multivariate logistic regression found that exposure to the combined risk messages (vs. control as referent) was associated with higher odds of mask-wearing intentions in the next 2 weeks (AOR = 1.97)."


Examining reactions to smoking and COVID-19 risk messages: An experimental study with people who smoke

Int J Drug Policy. 2022 Jan 31;102:103607. Online ahead of print.

Zachary B Massey, Hue Trong Duong, Victoria Churchill, Lucy Popova



"During the 15 years since the FCTC [Framework Convention on Tobacco Control] came into force in China, some progress has been made towards fulfilling the obligations. However, there are still big gaps in FCTC implementation. The root causes of these gaps are obstacles from the tobacco industry and the government’s ambiguous attitudes toward the tobacco economy… The prevalence of smoking among people 15 years and older in China was 26.6% in 2018 - almost unchanged from 2010. Healthy China 2030 set a smoking prevalence target of 20% by 2030. However, the target will be challenging to achieve without removing obstacles from the tobacco industry."


Current Progress and Challenges to Tobacco Control in China

China CDC Wkly. 2022 Feb 11;4(6):101-105.

Dong Sun, Yuanjie Pang, Jun Lyu, Liming Li




Note: Open Access.


"In 2010-2018, the overall prevalence of tobacco use, daily SHS [secondhand smoke] exposure at home and household solid fuel use among women in 57 LMICs [low- and middle-income countries] was 3.2% (95 %CI = 3.1-3.3), 23.0% (22.8-23.2), and 65.6% (65.3-65.9), respectively. The prevalence of tobacco use was lower among pregnant women than non-pregnant women (2.1% vs. 3.3%), but the prevalence of daily SHS exposure at home (24.4% vs. 22.8%) and household solid fuel use (69.1% vs. 65.3%) was higher among pregnant women than non-pregnant women. About 16% of the women presented two or three simultaneous risk factors. Between 2000 and 2018, the prevalence of tobacco use decreased in 24 (64.9%) of 37 countries, and the prevalence of household solid fuel use decreased in 20 (50.0%) of 40 countries."


Prevalence and trends in tobacco use, secondhand smoke exposure at home and household solid fuel use among women in 57 low- and middle-income countries, 2000-2018

Environ Int. 2022 Feb 15;161:107142. Online ahead of print.

Lili Yang, Han Wu, Min Zhao, Costan G Magnussen, Bo Xi



Note: Open Access.


"Tobacco product coupon receipt and redemption are often more prevalent among price-sensitive subpopulations. Most concerning, our results suggest coupon receipt may be associated with higher tobacco initiation and lower tobacco cessation. Couponing thereby increases the toll of tobacco use and could prove to be a viable public health policy intervention point."


Tobacco Couponing: A Systematic Review of Exposures and Effects on Tobacco Initiation and Cessation Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac037.

Published: 10 February 2022

Alex C Liber, Luz María Sánchez-Romero, Christopher J Cadham, Zhe Yuan, Yameng Li, Hayoung Oh, Steven Cook, Kenneth E Warner,Lisa Henriksen, Ritesh Mistry, Rafael Meza, Nancy L Fleischer, David T Levy





Design of financial incentive programmes for smoking cessation: A discrete choice experiment



"The majority of participants reported making a quit attempt (70%) and using NRT [nicotine replacement therapy] (84%). Having an encounter with staff in the past week was associated with a 40% reduction in weekly consumption (Incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.61, 95% CI 0.57-0.67) and using medications in the past week was associated with a 23% reduction in weekly consumption (IRR 0.78, 95% CI 0.75-0.81). Using medications in the past week increased the odds of a quit attempt 2.89 times compared to not using medications (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.89, 95% CI 1.45-5.77). "


A community-based tobacco cessation program for individuals experiencing homelessness

Addict Behav. 2022 Feb 16;129:107282. Online ahead of print.

Marlena Hartman-Filson, Jennifer Chen, Priscella Lee, Megan Phan, Dorie E Apollonio, Lisa Kroon, Fiona Donald, Maya Vijayaraghavan



"Based on the available data, nicotine and NRT [nicotine replacement therapy] should ideally be avoided prior to MPI [myocardial perfusion imaging]. The specific time frame in which they would be stopped before conducting MPI differs based on the pharmacokinetics of each product."


Nicotine and Nicotine Replacement Therapy Use During Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

Fed Pract. 2022 Jan;39(1):23-27. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Joanna Longueira, Emiliya Khazan, Floyd Burke



"This single-center study suggests that although tobacco use cessation counseling and interventions were not associated with a decrease in CVEs [cardiovascular events], evidence-based interventions for tobacco use were under utilized in this high cardiac risk population. These findings underscore missed opportunities for transplant practitioners to provide tobacco use cessation interventions to LTRs [liver transplant recipients], which potentially could reduce CVEs."


Poor Practitioner Adherence to Clinical Tobacco Use Guidelines in Liver Transplant Recipients

Transplant Direct. 2022 Jan 26;8(2):e1288. eCollection 2022 Feb.

Claire Harrington, Megan Kosirog, Patrick Campbell, Dyanna Gregory, Amna Daud, Josh Levitsky, Jane L Holl, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Lisa B VanWagner



Note: Open Access.


Developing a theoretical marketing framework to analyse JUUL and compatible e-cigarette product promotion on Instagram

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 21 February 2022.

Ganna Kostygina, Hy Tran, Lauren Czaplicki, Siobhan N Perks, Donna Vallone, Sherry L Emery, Elizabeth C Hair






Cultural appropriation on Marlboro packs in Mexico: ofrenda symbolism a cruel irony




Note: Open Access.


"It is apparent from this study that e-cig use promotes a unique periodontal microbiome, one that contains distinctive features yet shares similarities with those of both conventional cigarette users and nonsmokers. The duration of e-cig use is a strong driver of subgingival microbiome composition over flavoring additions or nicotine concentration, indicating that basal e-cig components exert specific selection pressures on the SGP [subgingival plaque] microbial community."


Electronic Cigarette Use Promotes a Unique Periodontal Microbiome


22 February 2022

Scott C. Thomas, Fangxi Xu, Smruti Pushalkar, Ziyan Lin, Nirali Thakor, Mridula Vardhan, Zia Flaminio, , Alireza Khodadadi-Jamayran, Rebeca Vasconcelos, Adenike Akapo, Erica Queiroz, Maria Bederoff, Malvin N. Janal, Yuqi Guo, Deanna Aguallo, Terry Gordon, Patricia M. Corby, Angela R. Kamer, Xin Li, Deepak Saxena




Note: Open Access.


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Evidence grows for vaping's role in gum disease



"This is the first study to examine the possible mediators between cigarette cessation intention and e-cigarette use in a Chinese smoking population. The findings revealed that high socioeconomic status, particularly higher education level, was a major mediating factor."


The characteristics and patterns of e-cigarette use and its association with cigarette cessation intention in a Chinese smoking population: A mediation analysis

Tob Induc Dis. 2022 Feb 11;20:16. eCollection 2022.

Hao-Xiang Lin, Yan Zhang, Mei-Jun Chen, Yun-Ting Zheng, Qing-Ping Yun, Lan-Chao Zhang, Wan-Tong Zhang, Bao-Chen Zhu, Zhao Liu






Factors related to the success of smoking cessation: A retrospective cohort study in Korea




Note: Open Access.


"We extracted a set of sample tweets during an outbreak of e-cigarette or vaping-related lung injury (EVALI) in 2019 and created an annotated corpus to train and evaluate these models... Our study findings provide informative guidelines and practical implications for the automated detection of themed social media data for public opinions and health surveillance purposes."


Automated Detection of Vaping-Related Tweets on Twitter During the 2019 EVALI Outbreak Using Machine Learning Classification

Front Big Data. 2022 Feb 10;5:770585. eCollection 2022.

Yang Ren, Dezhi Wu, Avineet Singh, Erin Kasson, Ming Huang, Patricia Cavazos-Rehg



Note: Open Access.


"The mean effect size of attempts to mitigate vaping misinformation was positive but not statistically significant (d = 0.383, 95% CI [-0.029, 0.796], p = .061, k = 5) with lack of evidence for publication bias. Given limited studies included, we were unable to determine factors affecting the efficacy of interventions. The limited focus on non-US studies and youth populations is concerning given the popularity of vaping in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs) and among youth."


Interventions to Mitigate Vaping Misinformation: A Meta-Analysis

J Health Commun. 2022 Feb 27;1-9. Online ahead of print.

Kamila Janmohamed, Nathan Walter, Natalie Sangngam, Sam Hampsher, Kate Nyhan, Munmun de Choudhury, Navin Kumar



"Smoking increased the risk of COVID-19 compared with population controls, for overall COVID-19 (odds ratio (OR) 1.19 per standard deviation (SD) of lifetime smoking index, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11 to 1.27), hospitalized COVID-19 (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.97) or severe COVID-19 (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.98), with directionally consistent effects from sensitivity analyses. Lung function and COPD liability did not appear to mediate these associations."


Association of smoking, lung function, and COPD in COVID-19 risk: A 2 step Mendelian randomization study

Addiction. 2022 Feb 27. Online ahead of print.

S L Au Yeung, A M Li, B He, K O Kwok, C M Schooling



"We analyzed data from 4 waves (2013-2018) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study comprising 10,692 respondents (adolescents=5,428 and young adults=5,264)… Conclusions: Results indicate a high prevalence of WPT [waterpipe tobacco] initiation and progression among adolescents and young adults over time, with minority racial/ethnic groups being at greater risk for both. WPT-specific risk communication interventions (e.g., educational campaigns and health warning labels) are warranted to limit WPT smoking among young people."


Prevalence and predictors of waterpipe smoking initiation and progression among adolescents and young adults in waves 1-4 (2013-18) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study

Nicotine & Tobacco Research, ntac051.

Published: 23 February 2022

Prem Gautam, Eva Sharma, Mohammad Ebrahimi Kalan, Wei Li, Kenneth D Ward, Matthew T Sutherland, Miguel Angel Cano, Tan Li, Wasim Maziak





“Scary and effective, definitely pushes me to quit smoking”: Developing waterpipe pictorial health warnings targeting young adults in Lebanon


Full-scale randomized trial comparing Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) telephone-delivered coaching with standard telephone-delivered coaching among Medicare/uninsured quitline callers



"While the meta-analysis of RCTs [randomized controlled trials] did not show a significant association between snus use and smoking cessation (risk ratio (RR)=1.33, 95% CI 0.71 to 2.47 and RR=0.62, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.41), the results of the meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies (RR=1.38, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.82, p=0.022) and cross-sectional studies (OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.72, p=0.001) indicated that use of snus was associated with an increased likelihood of quitting or having quit smoking."


Efficacy of smokeless tobacco for smoking cessation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Tobacco Control Published Online First: 23 February 2022.

Daniel Stjepanović, Preeti Phartiyal, Janni Leung, Carmen C W Lim, Tianze Sun, Jack Yiu Chak Chung, Coral E Gartner, Wayne D Hall, Gary C K Chan





Nicotine pouch product awareness, interest and ever use among US adults who smoke, 2021



"Smokers reported greater preference to try NG [Nicotine gum] (63.8%) compared with CS [Camel Snus] (17.4%) or neither (18.8%), whereas majority of nonsmokers preferred neither product (64.3%) (p < 0.01). Of those offered to sample the products, 78.3% daily smokers and 68.4% non-daily smokers opted to sample. When asked about intentions to try, a greater proportion of smokers stated a preference to try NG over CS, as did the small number of nonsmokers who expressed a preference. Conclusion: Intentions to try CS were low despite different levels of exposure to product, and this low product appeal and interest in use may translate to limited potential of CS to serve as a reduced harm product for smokers."


Intention to purchase alternative tobacco products as a function of smoking status and responses to advertising, packaging, and sensory experiences

Addict Behav. 2022 Feb 22;130:107291. Online ahead of print.

Akshika Sharma, Kristie M June, Kaila J Norton, Brian Fix, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Vaughan W Rees, Richard J O'Connor





Affective mechanisms of stress-induced cigarette craving: Considerations of gender and race/ethnicity



"Sociodemographic characteristics such as sex, ethnicity, and education level were significantly associated with awareness of cigarette health warnings. Among cigarette smokers aware of health warnings, no sociodemographic differences in thinking about quitting were found. Tobacco control campaigns may need to target people of ethnicities with the highest smoking prevalence in the country."


Demographic characteristics associated with awareness of cigarette health warnings and thinking about quitting among current adult cigarette smokers in Zambia, 2017

Tob Prev Cessat. 2022 Feb 11;8:05. eCollection 2022.

Masauso M Phiri, April D Summers, Alissa C Kress, Isabel Garcia de Quevedo, Ralph Caraballo, Evelyn Twentyman




Note: Open Access.


"Attempts to quit smoking were higher among adolescent smokers who had seen graphic health warning labels compared to those who had not {boys, odds ratio (OR) = 1.72 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.48-2.00]; girls, OR = 1.74 (95% CI, 1.33-2.28)}. The correlation was greater for adolescents who thought about the harm of smoking [boys, OR = 1.86 (95% CI, 1.60-2.16); girls, OR = 1.85 (95% CI, 1.41-2.43)] and the willingness to quit [boys, OR = 2.03 (95% CI, 1.74-2.36); girls, OR = 2.04 (95% CI, 1.55-2.68)] after seeing graphic health warning labels. Our findings indicate that graphic health warning labels on cigarette packs have the potential to lower smoking intentions of adolescents."


Association Between Graphic Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs and Smoking Cessation Attempts in Korean Adolescent Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Study

Front Public Health. 2022 Feb 11;10:789707. eCollection 2022.

Hye Jin Joo, Jae Hong Joo, Seung Hoon Kim, Eun-Cheol Park, Sung-In Jang



Note: Open Access.


"All 4 constructs of outcome expectancies (negative consequences, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and appetite/weight control) were associated with lower abstinence self-efficacy and desire to quit tobacco smoking… Conclusion: Cognitive mechanisms that may explain the desire to quit tobacco smoking among Saudi women were identified. Although future longitudinal studies are required to determine relationships prospectively, targeted interventions that correct tobacco smoking outcome expectancies and boost abstinence self-efficacy skills may reduce tobacco smoking among Saudi women."


Effects of Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancies of Tobacco Smoking on the Desire to Quit Among Saudi Women: A Cross-Sectional Mediation Analysis

Tob Use Insights. 2022 Feb 21;15:1179173X221075581. eCollection 2022.

Abdullah M Alanazi, Shahad F Almutairi, Alanoud A Alsarami, Fay J Alanazi, Lama H Alqahtani, Tareq F Alotaibi, Saleh S Algarni, Sarah S Monshi, Taha T Ismaeil




Note: Open Access.


"This preliminary high-level modelling suggests that mandated denicotinisation has a plausible chance of achieving the New Zealand Government’s Smokefree 2025 goal. The probability of success would increase if supplemented with interventions such as mass-media campaigns offering Quitline support (especially if predominantly designed for a Māori audience). Nevertheless, there is much uncertainty with these results and more sophisticated modelling is forthcoming."


Modelling the impacts of tobacco denicotinisation on achieving the Smokefree 2025 goal in Aotearoa New Zealand

New Zealand Medical Journal

Vol 135 1548: 21 January 2022

Nick Wilson, Janet Hoek, Nhung Nghiem, Jennifer Summers, Leah Grout, Richard Edwards



"Of the total 9280 pregnant Japanese women, 532 (5.7%) had smoked before pregnancy. Of these, 272 (51.5%) quitted smoking after being diagnosed with pregnancy, while 258 (49.5%) continued to smoke during pregnancy and were diagnosed with habitual smoking during pregnancy. There was no significant relation between habitual smoking at pre-pregnancy and the perinatal adverse outcomes. However, habitual smoking during pregnancy was associated with the adverse perinatal outcomes such as the increased incidence of placental abruption (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.38, p = 0.04) and light-for-gestational-age neonate (adjusted OR 1.72, p = 0.03) on multiple logistic regression analyses."


Habitual Smoking and Perinatal Outcomes in Japan

Cureus. 2022 Feb 21;14(2):e22426. eCollection 2022 Feb.

Shunji Suzuki




Note: Open Access after free registration.


"Smoker's paradox extends to long-term outcome in patients with stable CAD [coronary artery disease] undergoing PCI [percutaneous coronary intervention], which is partially explained by differences in baseline characteristics. However, smoking strongly predicted all-cause mortality and repeated PCI procedures in patients with stable CAD undergoing PCI. "


Correlation Between Smoking Paradox and Heart Rhythm Outcomes in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease Receiving Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Front Cardiovasc Med. 2022 Feb 11;9:803650. eCollection 2022.

Han-Ping Wu, Sheng-Ling Jan, Shih-Lin Chang, Chia-Chen Huang, Mao-Jen Lin



Note: Open Access.